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Genetics, pathology, and diversity in twentieth-century America

Is deafness a disability to be prevented or the uniting trait of a cultural community to be preserved? Combining the history of eugenics and genetics with deaf and disability history, this book traces how American heredity researchers moved from trying to eradicate deafness to embracing it as a valuable cultural diversity. It looks at how deafness came to be seen as a hereditary phenomenon in the first place, how eugenics became part of progressive reform at schools for the deaf, and what this meant for early genetic counselling. Not least, this is a story of how deaf people’s perspectives were pushed out of science, and how they gradually reemerged from the 1950s onwards in new cooperative projects between professionals and local signing deaf communities. It thus sheds light on the early history of culturally sensitive health care services for minorities in the US, and on the role of the psycho-sciences in developing a sociocultural minority model of deafness. For scholars and students of deaf and disability studies and history, as well as health care professionals and activists, this book offers new insight to changing ideas about medical ethics, reproductive rights, and the meaning of scientific progress. Finally, it shows how genetics came to be part of recent arguments about deafness as a form of biocultural diversity.

Confronting complexities

The Irish health system is confronted by a range of challenges, both emerging and recurring. In order to address these, it is essential that spaces are created for conversations around complex ethical and legal issues. This collection aims to provide a basis for ongoing engagement with selected issues in contemporary Irish health contexts. It includes contributions from scholars and practitioners across a range of disciplines, most particularly, ethics, law and medicine.

The focus of the collection is interdisciplinary and the essays are situated at the intersection between ethics, law and medicine. Important issues addressed include admission to care homes; assisted suicide; adolescent decision-making; allocation of finite resources; conscientious objection; data protection; decision-making at the end of life; mental health; the rights of older people; patient responsibilities; stem cell research; the role of carers; and reproductive rights. From these discussion, the collection draws out the following interlinking themes, addressing difference; context and care; oversight and decision-making; and, regulating research.

The essays are theoretically informed and are grounded in the realities of the Irish health system, by drawing on contributors’ contextual knowledge.

This book makes an informed and balanced contribution to academic and broader public discourse.

Johanna Gondouin, Suruchi Thapar-Björkert and Ingrid Ryberg

of the series’ white intended parents. The physical and material vulnerability and subordination of the Thai sex workers and surrogates, on the other hand, render them no other narrative function than that of passive, objectified victims to be used for the white characters’ various purposes. These conflicting notions of vulnerability, we propose, evoke diverging positions in the current debate on transnational commercial surrogacy: a Western liberal notion of reproductive rights on the one hand, and a postcolonial critical notion of reproductive justice on the

in The power of vulnerability
‘For women’ but not by women
Elizabeth Evans

impact upon women; these can largely be categorised as being either social or biological (Lovenduski, 1997). Work on the substantive representation of women’s issues or concerns tends to include the following policy areas: abortion, childcare, constitutional equality guarantees, divorce, domestic violence, equal pay, family issues, parental leave, pensions, rape, reproductive rights, women as carers, women’s health and work/life balance (Childs et al., 2005). Clearly there are some problems in classifying the above policy areas solely as ‘women’s issues’; arguably

in Gender and the Liberal Democrats
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Ruth Fletcher

judgement is the kind of harm which could justify abortion. It is possible that the ‘right to life of the unborn’ may not be engaged in such circumstances (Schweppe and Spain, 2013). It is possible that carrying such a pregnancy against one’s will is a form of inhumane and degrading treatment justifying access to lawful abortion (RR; KL v. Peru (UNHCR) CCPR/C/85/D/1153/2003; Centre for Reproductive Rights, 2014a; Centre for Reproductive Rights, 2014b). This means that it is also possible to invoke these harms as harms which may legally limit CO when contributing to the

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
Open Access (free)
‘Case history’ on violence against women, and against women’s rights to health and to reproductive health
Sara De Vido

courts,262 but, as one author contends, ‘prenatal personhood is often not something that is taken seriously by its proponents; rather it is a vehicle for justifying restrictions on women’s sexual and reproductive rights and, more specifically, for trumping the right to choose.’263 Who is the focus of the ‘narrative’? The woman, or the foetus, or both? Sifris has made the argument that states restricting access to abortion ‘generally fail to provide practical support to help prevent unwanted pregnancies from occurring in the first place and to assist such women when

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
Simona Giordano

defence of people’s reproductive rights, highlighting the discriminatory nature of the law in question and its incompatibility with the fundamental human right to found a family.7 Also as a result of the third-party intervention submitted by the World Congress, the courts condemned Costa Rica’s legislation, which was consequently abrogated. The World Congress for Freedom of Scientific Research has also presented or supported various petitions to the European Parliament, on euthanasia, HIV and reproductive and sexual health. The World Congress took an active role in the

in The freedom of scientific research
Alison Spillane

drafted the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Bill 2013. Abortion At a time when women were losing ground in a range of areas, the fight for the most basic level of female bodily autonomy restarted. There are several reasons why the campaign for reproductive rights in Ireland reignited during the crisis. A 2010 European Court of Human Rights judgment found Ireland’s failure to implement the existing constitutional right to a lawful abortion constituted a violation of Applicant C’s rights under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The new government

in Ireland under austerity
Open Access (free)
The narrative
Sara De Vido

problem within the ambit of health policies.9 However, the relationship has never been overtly encapsulated in an international human rights treaty. VAW emerged as a human rights issue only in the 1990s, as did the concept of reproductive health. Since then, over the years, many commentators, UN bodies, national and international courts have demonstrated that women’s health is a human rights issue, and that reproductive rights are a component of women’s right to health.10 The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 1979 (CEDAW

in Violence against women’s health in international law