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Politics, values, and in/exclusionary practices in assisted reproduction
Izabella Main

the new place of residence. Female migrants’ use of healthcare abroad is frequently related to their reproductive health. Yet, the position of women and their knowledge of reproductive rights depends on their financial resources as well as social and cultural capital. They also have very diverse experiences of access to free or subsidised healthcare in different countries (Czapka and Sagbakken 2016 , Main 2018 ). Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Berlin and Oslo, conducted among Polish female migrants, I explore women's experiences of access

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Genetics, pathology, and diversity in twentieth-century America

Is deafness a disability to be prevented or the uniting trait of a cultural community to be preserved? Combining the history of eugenics and genetics with deaf and disability history, this book traces how American heredity researchers moved from trying to eradicate deafness to embracing it as a valuable cultural diversity. It looks at how deafness came to be seen as a hereditary phenomenon in the first place, how eugenics became part of progressive reform at schools for the deaf, and what this meant for early genetic counselling. Not least, this is a story of how deaf people’s perspectives were pushed out of science, and how they gradually reemerged from the 1950s onwards in new cooperative projects between professionals and local signing deaf communities. It thus sheds light on the early history of culturally sensitive health care services for minorities in the US, and on the role of the psycho-sciences in developing a sociocultural minority model of deafness. For scholars and students of deaf and disability studies and history, as well as health care professionals and activists, this book offers new insight to changing ideas about medical ethics, reproductive rights, and the meaning of scientific progress. Finally, it shows how genetics came to be part of recent arguments about deafness as a form of biocultural diversity.

Confronting complexities

The Irish health system is confronted by a range of challenges, both emerging and recurring. In order to address these, it is essential that spaces are created for conversations around complex ethical and legal issues. This collection aims to provide a basis for ongoing engagement with selected issues in contemporary Irish health contexts. It includes contributions from scholars and practitioners across a range of disciplines, most particularly, ethics, law and medicine.

The focus of the collection is interdisciplinary and the essays are situated at the intersection between ethics, law and medicine. Important issues addressed include admission to care homes; assisted suicide; adolescent decision-making; allocation of finite resources; conscientious objection; data protection; decision-making at the end of life; mental health; the rights of older people; patient responsibilities; stem cell research; the role of carers; and reproductive rights. From these discussion, the collection draws out the following interlinking themes, addressing difference; context and care; oversight and decision-making; and, regulating research.

The essays are theoretically informed and are grounded in the realities of the Irish health system, by drawing on contributors’ contextual knowledge.

This book makes an informed and balanced contribution to academic and broader public discourse.

Johanna Gondouin, Suruchi Thapar-Björkert, and Ingrid Ryberg

of the series’ white intended parents. The physical and material vulnerability and subordination of the Thai sex workers and surrogates, on the other hand, render them no other narrative function than that of passive, objectified victims to be used for the white characters’ various purposes. These conflicting notions of vulnerability, we propose, evoke diverging positions in the current debate on transnational commercial surrogacy: a Western liberal notion of reproductive rights on the one hand, and a postcolonial critical notion of reproductive justice on the

in The power of vulnerability
Dalit feminist voices from the field
Johanna Gondouin, Suruchi Thapar-Björkert, and Mohan Rao

of reproductive justice : an understanding which challenges dominant articulations of ARTs centred on reproductive rights . Surrogacy in India: trends and transitions Surrogacy was legalised in India, a world leading destination for medical tourism (Deomampo, 2016 ; Pande, 2011 ; Rudrappa, 2014 ), in 2002 and benefited from the active promotion by the Indian government (Rudrappa, 2015 ; Deompampo, 2016 ). As Amrita Pande ( 2014a : 13) notes, ‘Clinics in India […], not

in Birth controlled
The role of pronatalism in the development of Czech childcare and reproductive health policies
Hana Hašková and Radka Dudová

restrictive legislation in 2003 did not use any feminist arguments. It pointed out the health risks of illegal abortion and argued that banning abortion would not lead to a higher fertility rate. It suggested educating people on reproductive rights and responsibilities and introducing work–life balance policies and family support instead. Thus, abortion was still prevailingly framed in medical terms; emphasis was placed on the health of mothers, combined with a focus on the ‘quality’ and quantity of the population. Given that abortion in the Czech

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
‘For women’ but not by women
Elizabeth Evans

impact upon women; these can largely be categorised as being either social or biological (Lovenduski, 1997). Work on the substantive representation of women’s issues or concerns tends to include the following policy areas: abortion, childcare, constitutional equality guarantees, divorce, domestic violence, equal pay, family issues, parental leave, pensions, rape, reproductive rights, women as carers, women’s health and work/life balance (Childs et al., 2005). Clearly there are some problems in classifying the above policy areas solely as ‘women’s issues’; arguably

in Gender and the Liberal Democrats
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Young women’s experiences of access to reproductive health in southern Africa
Kezia Batisai

policies and treaties to ensure that they align with the laws of the land, especially when they contradict customary law. A dualistic approach to international instruments means that whenever a country fails to domesticate such treaties, they ‘only play a persuasive role in the legal system’ (Batisai et al . , 2010 : 14). Policy documents such as the 1994 Cairo Programme of Action emerge as ‘soft law’, which is not binding on governments but rather serves as a tool for lobbying and advocating women's reproductive rights and health (Nair et al., 2004 ), and ‘a tool that

in Birth controlled
Women and the promise of peace in the ‘new’ Northern Ireland

arguments offered for women’s persistent under-representation in formal politics. In advancing a feminist argument that seeks to challenge the gendered nature of peace and security, the chapter then examines the increased levels of gender-based violence that have marked the peace-process era, before finally considering women’s security in relation to the struggle for reproductive rights. While these issues are also commonplace in other regions free from the residue of armed conflict and its legacy, ‘the combination of challenging

in Northern Ireland a generation after Good Friday