France has been a central actor in human protection, yet the existing literature has too often focused on Anglo-Saxon states or states that are wary of its development. In order to address this gap, this book provides an original and much-needed account of France’s relationship to human protection since the 1980s. It analyses a ‘tale of two norms’ using an innovative theoretical framework: The first is ‘France’s domestic norm of human protection’, and the second is the dominant international principle or norm of human protection at the time (chiefly humanitarian intervention in the 1990s and the responsibility to protect (R2P) in the 2000s). Through this ‘tale of two norms’, and also thanks to interviews with key actors such as Gareth Evans and Bernard Kouchner and analysis of fourteen case studies, the book reshapes our understanding of the development and influence of key principles and norms of human protection. It also corrects prevailing assumptions about France’s foreign policy and allows us to anticipate its future foreign policy more accurately. Last but not least, by showing how important it is to pay more attention to the interplay between domestic and international norms and building an innovative framework that can be used beyond the analysis of France and human protection, the book makes a key contribution to the literature on norms and International Relations theory more generally. The book is therefore an essential read for anyone interested in human protection, peace studies, France, foreign policy analysis, International Relations and norm diffusion.
reports on R2P in order to facilitate its development. The report was called “Implementing the responsibilitytoprotect” and defined a three-pillar strategy where the first pillar promotes the states’ responsibilitytoprotect their own population, the second pillar calls for “the international community to assist States in meeting those obligations”, and the third pillar argues that the international community has to “respond collectively in a timely and decisive manner” when a state fails to fulfil its responsibilities (Ban 2009 , 8–9).
Syria meant that R2P was dead (see for instance Rieff 2011 ).
Even though it is undeniable that the norm remained contested, it would, however, be mistaken to underestimate how far it had come. Between 2012 and 2017 the UN Security Council passed forty-seven resolutions referring to the international norm, thereby showing not only its importance, but also the international community's willingness to continue promoting it (Global Centre for the ResponsibilitytoProtect 2019 ). Additionally, as mentioned in the Introduction, in the specific case
France and the emergence of the responsibility to protect (2000–2004)
Protect , the Commission argued that both states and the international community have a responsibilitytoprotect populations from four crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and ethnic cleansing. Three responsibilities were identified: to prevent, to react and to rebuild. It thus concluded that “the principle of non-intervention yields to the international responsibilitytoprotect” (ICISS 2001 , xi).
By doing so, the report did not disregard the importance of sovereignty, since this would have sealed the fate of R2P by leading to
international principles and norms such as humanitarian intervention and the responsibilitytoprotect (R2P) by overlooking the role played by France over the years. Additionally, they preclude us from fully analysing France's past and current foreign policy since they lead us to underestimate the role played both by France's commitment to human protection, and the growing influence that international principles and norms have had on France's conception and practice of human protection. This book thus tells the much-needed story of France and human protection in order to
The chapter investigates whether, how and why France continued to play a central role in human protection in the second half of the 1990s and whether its conception and practice of human protection impacted – and was impacted by – humanitarian intervention and the increasing international contestation it face. In order to do this, it investigates the norm contestation faced by humanitarian intervention – and more specifically, the role played by France in deepening this contestation – along with the challenges faced by France during its participation to United Nations interventions undertaken for humanitarian purposes. It argues that despite this challenging context, the various executives did not promote a normative rollback, and emphasises the role played by France’s domestic norm of human protection. It then explains that in order to fulfil France’s perceived duty to protect without endangering its rank, and to address some domestic and international constraints, however, France’s practice of human protection evolved considerably and contributed greatly to the reinforcement of the global trend of delegating humanitarian intervention to multilateral organisations and adopting more robust strategies in the field. The last section illustrates these changes by continuing the case study of France’s involvement in former Yugoslavia and, more specifically, by focusing on its interventions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.
The chapter provides an overview of the innovative framework promoted by the book to analyse the historical interplay between France’s domestic norm of human and the international norm of human protection at the time. The framework builds on the respective work of Finnemore and Sikkink (1998) and Acharya (2004, 2011, 2013, 2015) and is defined by four key stages: entrepreneurship, localisation, subsidiarity and internalisation. Because norms are not static, these stages are likely to recur as the international context evolves and/or new forms of contestation emerge, but the framework put forward can be used to analyse these developments. Before exploring it in more depth, the chapter first investigates some of the key factors that have influenced France’s conception of, and contribution to, human protection over the years. It concludes by emphasising the theoretical contributions made by the book.
This chapter investigates France’s conception and contribution to human protection from 1987 to 1993. It first discusses the emergence of France’s domestic norm of human protection. It then analyses the extent of the role played by France in the emergence of humanitarian intervention and argues that France was a norm entrepreneur between 1987 and 1991 before helping to consolidate the international principle through its practice from 1992. Finally, it investigates the French involvement in Bosnia and Herzegovina – France’s main intervention at the time – in order to illustrate the evolution of France’s conception and contribution to human protection during that period.
International organisations are a central component of modern international society. This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the intergovernmental organisation (IGO). It defines and explains inter-governmentalism and the role of law in its regulation. The book presents case studies that show how the law works within an institutional order dominated by politics. After a note on the key relationship between the IGO and its member states, it examines the basic relationship between the UN and states in terms of membership through admissions, withdrawal, expulsion, suspension, and representation. The debate about the extent of the doctrine of legal powers is addressed through case studies. Institutional lawmaking in the modern era is discussed with particular focus on at the impact of General Assembly Resolutions on outer space and the Health Regulations of the World Health Organization. Non-forcible measures adopted by the UN and similar IGOs in terms of their legality (constitutionality and conformity to international law), legitimacy and effectiveness, is covered next. The different military responses undertaken by IGOs, ranging from observation and peacekeeping, to peace enforcement and war-fighting, are discussed in terms of legality and practice. The book also considers the idea of a Responsibility to Protect and the development of secondary rules of international law to cover the wrongful acts and omissions of IGOs. It ends with a note on how the primary and secondary rules of international law are upheld in different forms and mechanisms of accountability, including courts.
legitimacy regarding the use of force. Communicative ethics does not
seek to replace legal and moral discourses of legitimation. Instead,
it focuses on the communicative practices which constitute the
claims to legitimacy.
This chapter explores two concepts popular within a
broadly normative school of thought, ‘good international
citizenship’ and the ‘responsibilitytoprotect