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This book provides an analytical overview of the vast range of historiography which was produced in western Europe over a thousand-year period between c.400 and c.1500. It focuses on the centrality of certain basic principles of rhetoric to the writing of history, and the relationship between the methodology of non-Christian and Christian historiography. The book first locates the writing of history in the Middle Ages at the confluence of three major historiographical traditions such as the classical, the biblical and the chronographic. Then, it introduces a fourth - rhetoric - and its contents are accordingly determined by the traditional division of rhetoric into its three fundamental categories: demonstrative or epideictic rhetoric; judicial or forensic rhetoric; and deliberative rhetoric. There is variation between each of these categories in terms of both approach and emphasis but all three of these forms of rhetoric still have fundamental elements in common. In particular, all three categories divide the subject-matter of a speech or text into five constituent elements: invention or inventio; arrangement or dispositio; style or elocutio; memory or memoria; and delivery or pronuntiatio. It is the first three of these five elements (inventio, dispositio and elocutio) which form the basis for defining the methodology of medieval historiography as a relationship between verisimilitude and truth. The book is intended to serve as a practical guide to some of the more important methodological principles which informed medieval historiography. It also provides a (necessarily) selective index to some of the more specialised modern commentary and scholarship.

Matthew Kempshall

• 2 • Rhetoric and history In seeking to establish exactly how the writing of history was conceptualised and practised in the Middle Ages, a sensible starting point is to identify where historiography fitted into a programme of study, that is, where medieval authors would themselves have encountered the writing of history as a body of material and as part and parcel of their education.1 What becomes immediately apparent is that, initially at least, it would have been as an integral component of the study of grammar and rhetoric – in grammar, as excerpts from

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
Ben Jackson

12 The rhetoric of redistribution1 Ben Jackson Hobson, lecturing on economics last night on the BBC, referred to the revolution which had occurred in our society by the imposition of taxes upon wealth, & the heavy death duties which prevented it from being passed on. And D. [Lloyd George], looking at me significantly, pointed his finger to his own breast, meaning: I did it. (Lloyd George: a Diary by Frances Stevenson, entry for 29.10.1934, quoted in Clarke 1974: xxxiv) Introduction The historic distributive achievements of social democracy – the welfare state

in In search of social democracy
Monarchy in New Zealand, political rhetoric and adjusting to the end of empire
H. Kumarasingham

Despite ceaseless, technological, economic and cultural change New Zealand’s parliamentary leaders on 7 February 2012 expressed a timeless parliamentary method of rhetoric that would have been perfectly understood by any of their predecessors in the 160 years since the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 established Parliament. The Prime Minister, Rt Hon. John Key, sought leave that the

in Rhetorics of empire
1 Peter 2.9 and the Franks
Gerda Heydemann

1 The rhetoric of election: 1 Peter 2.9 and the Franks Gerda Heydemann and Walter Pohl Could the Franks be regarded as holy, as a chosen people? Alcuin wrote in his Vita Vedastis that through the baptism of Clovis the Franks had become a ‘holy nation’ (gens sancta), a ‘people of His own’ (populus adquisitionis).1 This seems like a strong statement of Christian Frankish identity by Charlemagne’s Anglo-Saxon adviser, based on a quote from the First Letter of Peter in the New Testament.2 It raises a number of important questions. What does it tell us about the

in Religious Franks
Women’s work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900–55
Author: Helen Glew

Collectively, the Civil Service and the London County Council (LCC) employed tens of thousands of women in Britain in the early twentieth century. As public employers, these institutions remained influential for each other and for private employers more widely as a benchmark for the conditions of women’s white-collar work. This book examines three key aspects of women’s public service employment: inequality of pay, the marriage bar and inequality of opportunity. In so doing, it delineates the levels of regulation and rhetoric surrounding women’s employment and the extent to which notions about femininity and womanhood shaped employment policies and, ultimately, women’s experiences in the workplace. Drawing on a wide range of archival sources, including policy documents, trade union records, women’s movement campaign literature and employees’ personal testimony, this is the first book-length study of women’s public service employment in the first half of the twentieth century. It is also a new lens through which to examine the women’s movement in this period and a contribution to the debate about the effect of the First World War on women’s employment. Scholars and students with interests in gender, British social and cultural history and labour history will find this an invaluable text.

Kathleen G. Cushing

would come to be regarded as serious moral offences with untold consequences. It is evident that this tactic underlay much of the reformers’ propaganda. By increasingly emphasizing the potential for contagion, and by reiterating the paramount need to cleanse the sacred from contamination by the secular, the reformers used the language of purity and pollution, in particular the rhetoric of sexual separation, both to delineate and more sharply enforce what they deemed to be the appropriate spheres of activity both for themselves and for lay society. 1 Reliance on this

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Steven Griggs and David Howarth

1 Discourse, rhetoric and logics The notion common to all the work that I have done since Madness and Civilization is that of problematization, though it must be said that I never isolated this notion sufficiently. But one always finds what is essential after the event; the most general things are those that appear last. It is the ransom and reward for all work in which theoretical questions are elaborated on the basis of a particular empirical field.… Problematization doesn’t mean representation of a pre-existing object, nor the creation by discourse of an

in The politics of airport expansion in the United Kingdom
Abstract only
The English nation and national sentiment in the prophetic mode
Patrick Collinson

Chapter 6 . Biblical rhetoric: the English nation and national sentiment in the prophetic mode W hen members of the Elizabethan parliaments demanded of their queen that she marry or otherwise determine the succession to the crown, they sometimes spoke with feeling of England, the nation which they claimed to represent and for which they offered to speak. ‘For I tell you, Mr Speaker, that I speake for all England, yea, and for the noble English nation, who in times past (with noe small honour) have daunted and made the proudest nations agast.’1 According to

in This England
Mark Robson

, though, I would like to offer a few comments on another connection that should be made with Jonson’s statements. The passages that I’ve quoted above come from sections of the Discoveries that have a pedagogical impulse, and it has been speculated that these may have come from Jonson’s preparatory notes for some lectures on rhetoric at Gresham College, London. 8 The

in The sense of early modern writing