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State, market, and the Party in China’s financial reform
Author: Julian Gruin

Over more than thirty years of reform and opening, the Chinese Communist Party has pursued the gradual marketization of China’s economy alongside the preservation of a resiliently authoritarian political system, defying long-standing predictions that ‘transition’ to a market economy would catalyse deeper political transformation. In an era of deepening synergy between authoritarian politics and finance capitalism, Communists constructing capitalism offers a novel and important perspective on this central dilemma of contemporary Chinese development. This book challenges existing state–market paradigms of political economy and reveals the Eurocentric assumptions of liberal scepticism towards Chinese authoritarian resilience. It works with an alternative conceptual vocabulary for analysing the political economy of financial development as both the management and exploitation of socio-economic uncertainty. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork and over sixty interviews with policymakers, bankers, and former party and state officials, the book delves into the role of China’s state-owned banking system since 1989. It shows how political control over capital has been central to China’s experience of capitalist development, enabling both rapid economic growth whilst preserving macroeconomic and political stability. Communists constructing capitalism will be of academic interest to scholars and graduate students in the fields of Chinese studies, social studies of finance, and international and comparative political economy. Beyond academia, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of Chinese capitalism and its implications for an increasingly central issue in contemporary global politics: the financial foundations of illiberal capitalism.

Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

relative safety and stability after moving out of their countries and disconnecting from previous anchors. In addition, the SAST research demonstrated profound differences in anchoring across the participants due to unequal resources, constraints and opportunities. Anchoring, like mobility, reflects limiting structures, hierarchies of power and positions (Tesfahuney 1998 ). Drawing on Cooper's work ( 2008 ) on the inequality of security, the SAST research showed how individuals’ positionality influenced their levels of exposure to risk and uncertainty as well as their

in Rethinking settlement and integration
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Brian D. Earp and Julian Savulescu

This chapter highlights the recent burst of controlled, scientific research on medical and non-medical uses of psychedelic drugs and MDMA to improve individual welfare, and argues that this research should be extended to couples in romantic relationships. It questions the line between ‘drugs’ and ‘medicine’ and argues that such distinctions often reflect dubious social and historical factors, rather than a clear-eyed assessment of actual benefits and harms. It introduces the idea that love drugs might help strengthen certain relationships, and that anti-love drugs might help other relationships end. But there are serious risks that might be associated with such drugs, and the wider social implications will be hard to predict. To minimize this risk and uncertainty, careful ethical deliberation and nuanced policy measures will be key.

in Love is the Drug
Will Hutton

opposition. The social contract is being unpicked and ordinary working-class people being exposed to new workplace risks and uncertainties: funding for health and education is as low as can be got away with politically. The principles of liberal social democracy seem a distant dream. Even more of a dream seems a government ever able to implement them. The Conservative hegemony has been re-established, sealed by the referendum on Brexit. The left’s bankruptcy was dramatised by the election of Jeremy Corbyn as leader of the Labour Party, to whom Marquand’s ideas – even if he

in Making social democrats
Journalism practice, risk and humanitarian communication
Jairo Lugo-Ocando and Gabriel Andrade

give equal weight to opposing viewpoints, making science appear more controversial than it actually is, therefore influencing risk and uncertainty perceptions. 46 By complying with the notion of supposed bias journalists in fact provide a distorted view of reality. Moreover, in recent years there has been a consensus that has been galvanised towards a news agenda that recognises collective response and global risks in

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Friends or foes?
Roberto Baldoli and Claudio M. Radaelli

–16. Gollier, C., and Treich, N. (2003), ‘Decision-making under scientific uncertainty: the economics of the precautionary principle’, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 27.1: 77–103. Evidence-based policy and the precautionary principle 219 Majone, G. (2000), ‘The Credibility Crisis of Community Regulation’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 38: 273–302. Majone, G. (2010), ‘Foundations of risk regulation: science, decision-making, policy learning and institutional reform’, European Journal of Risk and Regulation, 1.1: 5–19. Monaghan, M., Pawson, R., and Wicker

in The freedom of scientific research
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The West, its ideas and enemies
Stanley R. Sloan

the Soviet Union remained an alien society that could produce new threats in the future. They saw NATO as an “insurance policy” against a future fire in the European house. Some pointed to new risks and uncertainties that could best be dealt with through NATO’s approach, in which like-minded countries work together to handle security problems. The key factor, illustrating that the member states still considered NATO more than “just a military alliance,” was the reaction of allies to the desire of former Warsaw Pact states and even former Soviet republics to join

in Transatlantic traumas
Encounters with biosocial power
Author: Kevin Ryan

Refiguring childhood stages a series of encounters with biosocial power, which is a specific zone of intensity within the more encompassing arena of biopower and biopolitics. Assembled at the intersection of thought and practice, biosocial power attempts to bring envisioned futures into the present, taking hold of life in the form of childhood, thereby bridging being and becoming while also shaping the power relations that encapsulate the social and cultural world(s) of adults and children. Taking up a critical perspective which is attentive to the contingency of childhoods – the ways in which particular childhoods are constituted and configured – the method used in the book is a transversal genealogy that moves between past and present while also crossing a series of discourses and practices framed by children’s rights (the right to play), citizenship, health, disadvantage and entrepreneurship education. The overarching analysis converges on contemporary neoliberal enterprise culture, which is approached as a conjuncture that helps to explain, and also to trouble, the growing emphasis on the agency and rights of children. It is against the backdrop of this problematic that the book makes its case for refiguring childhood. Focusing on the how, where and when of biosocial power, Refiguring childhood will appeal to researchers and students interested in examining the relationship between power and childhood through the lens of social and political theory, sociology, cultural studies, history and geography.

Children as ‘architects of their futures’
Kevin Ryan

‘transversal competency’,8 which taps into the more socially sedimented discourse of lifelong learning to the extent that entrepreneurship is described as a ‘life-wide as well as lifelong’ process of ‘competence development’ (EC 2011: 2). One way of grasping what is at stake in this idea of transversal competency, at least in terms of what it claims to be, is to think of it as a form of virtuosity that equips children and young people with resilience, initiative and tenacity, enabling them to adapt and respond to situations characterised by risk and uncertainty (EC 2012: 3

in Refiguring childhood
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The bare essentials
Ali Rattansi

’ in which ‘Global lawlessness and armed violence feed each other’ (Liquid Fear: 97, emphasis in original). Negative globalisation generalises fear, risk and uncertainty on a planetary scale. This is a world in which terrorism thrives (Liquid Fear: 102; Best 2010). Far from eradicating uncertainty and risk, actions such as the invasion of Iraq end up glorifying and enlarging terrorist organisations like al-Qaeda (Liquid Fear: 103). Negative globalisation in the form brought about by global neoliberalism creates ‘wasted lives’ (Wasted Lives). The ‘new poor’ are not

in Bauman and contemporary sociology