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Three case studies
Author: Richard Hillman

This book explores English tragedy in relation to France with a frank concentration on Shakespeare. Three manifestations of the 'Shakespearean tragic' are singled out: Hamlet, Antony and Cleopatra and All's Well That Ends Well, a comedy with melancholic overtones whose French setting is shown to be richly significant. Hamlet has occasioned many books on its own, including a recent study by Margreta De Grazia, Hamlet without Hamlet, whose objective is to free the text from the 'Modern Hamlet'. The influence of Michel de Montaigne on Hamlet is usually assumed to have left its traces in more or less precise verbal or intellectual correspondences. The book proposes two further sources of French resonance accessible to auditors of the ultimate early modern English tragedy. It talks about two French Antonies. One is the steadfast friend of Caesar and avenging Triumvir, as heralded in Jacques Grévin's César and vividly evoked in Robert Garnier's Porcie. The other is the hedonist who ruins himself for Cleopatra, as first brought on stage in France by Étienne Jodelle in Cléopâtre captive, then substantially fleshed out in Garnier's own Marc Antoine. The distance between the tragedies and All's Well comes down to the difference between horizontal and vertical lifeless bodies. When he grafted the true-to-life histoire tragique of Hélène of Tournon onto the fairy-tale of Giletta of Narbonne, Shakespeare retained the latter's basic family situation. Shakespeare's Helena succeeds where the King has failed by exploiting her position as an outsider.

Victor Skretkowicz

Shakespeare alludes to in Julius Caesar does not readily manifest itself. But in 1599, he had every reason to introduce Caesar’s assassination and Octavius’s succession into the established dramatic convention of allegorising the French Wars of Religion. In France, Robert Garnier adapted the political and personal conflicts surrounding Antony and Cleopatra to criticise the

in European erotic romance
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French ripples within and beyond the ‘Pembroke Circle’
Richard Hillman

redemptive: ‘I will o’ertake thee, Cleopatra, and / Weep for my pardon’ (IV.xiv.45–46). VIII Alexander Witherspoon was breaking new ground in 1924 when he wrote The Influence of Robert Garnier on Elizabethan Drama, and while his views are outmoded in many respects (including the narrow notion of ‘closet drama’), his study (reprinted in 1968 ) has had considerable

in French reflections in the Shakespearean tragic
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‘Ariachne’s broken woof’
Janice Valls- Russell, Agnès Lafont, and Charlotte Coffin

/or seen Shakespeare and Chapman, who had read and/or seen Marlowe and Lyly. They simultaneously engaged in ‘acute intertextual manoeuvers’ and indulged in intratextual self-referentiality, choosing to ‘recollect’ themselves. 46 Translations of other European contemporary authors enriched the process. One instance of such lateral influences is the translation of Robert Garnier’s Senecan drama, Marc

in Interweaving myths in Shakespeare and his contemporaries
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Fulke Greville’s Mustapha
Daniel Cadman

1592 of Antonius , a translation by Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke, of Marc Antoine , a tragedy by the influential French dramatist, Robert Garnier. The years immediately after the publication of Antonius saw the appearance of a number of other tragedies following the precedent it had established. Thomas Kyd, for example, published Cornelia , a translation of an earlier Garnier play, in 1593 and announced his intention to produce a translation of Garnier's later play, Porcie , before his death in 1594. Samuel Daniel, a recipient of Mary Sidney

in The genres of Renaissance tragedy
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Richard Hillman

-Channel intertextual intervention may cause an apparently ‘self-sufficient’ textual cluster to signify in new ways, and that criticism may cross the Channel productively in both directions. The crossings are smooth ones in the case of the Roman-Egyptian plays of Étienne Jodelle, Robert Garnier and Nicolas de Montreux, juxtaposed with those of Samuel Daniel and Shakespeare (with Mary Sidney Herbert’s translation of

in French reflections in the Shakespearean tragic
From pathos to bathos in early English tragedy; or, the comedy of terrors
Richard Hillman

drama, to the Countess of Pembroke’s translation of Robert Garnier’s Marc Antoine and, more or less finally, to Samuel Daniel, with his unstaged Cleopatra and Philotas . This is the compact garden planted by Macintire (pp. 523–24), and subsequent criticism, by and large, has kept it carefully tended and free from weeds, on the assumption that flowers and weeds are different species. That

in French origins of English tragedy
Susan Frye

the installation of the sculpture, while still others were written by Fausto Romano and Michaelangelo (c. 1544–6).37 More accessible to Bess and collaborators would have been Robert Garnier’s Antonie, published in France in 1578 and translated by Mary Sidney Herbert in 1592. Although Garnier’s closet drama displays much of Cleopatra’s untrustworthiness, he still pictures her as a sovereign queen as well as wife and mother, skilled in diplomacy and languages, dying from grief at the loss of Antony. Bess’s decision that her figure of Cleopatra be attended by the

in Bess of Hardwick
Line Cottegnies

concerning the trewnesse of the Christian religion, written in French, published in 1587, and Mary Sidney translated de Mornay’s A Discourse of Life and Death, with Robert Garnier’s Antonius, both published in 1592. 20 I would like to thank Joseph Black for sharing the catalogue of the library before it was published. G. Warkentin, J. L. Black and W. R. Bowen (eds), The Library of the Sidneys of Penshurst Place, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2013. See also G. Warkentin, ‘The world and the book at Penshurst: the second Earl of Leicester (1595–1677) and his library

in Early modern women and the poem
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The mingled yarn of Elizabethan tragedy
Jonathan Bate

. The most distinguished tragedies for reading, or ‘closet dramas’, of the period emerged from the Pembroke circle in the 1590s. The Countess of Pembroke herself translated the Marc Antoine of the French neoclassical dramatist Robert Garnier. The Sidney circle, with their strong commitment to Protestant virtue, were deeply committed to an image of Elizabeth as noble Roman, not sensuous Cleopatra

in Doing Kyd