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The avant-garde and its Legacy

In 1909, the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's Founding Manifesto of Futurism was published on the front page of Le Figaro. Between 1909 and 1912, the Futurists published works celebrating speed and danger, glorifying war and technology, and advocating political and artistic revolution. In Europe, this avant-garde movement was active in the field of painting and sculpture, theatre, photography and politics. This book reassesses the activities and legacies of Futurism. It looks at Futurist manifestos by linking techniques of promotion with practices in commercial advertising, and exploring the question of how Futurist manifestos address notions of genius and gender. The book also reconstructs the historical, cultural and ideological background of Marinetti's Manifesto del tattilismo. Zurich Dadaists adopted cultural stances heavily indebted to the terms of critical engagement and cultural visibility initiated within the Futurist circle. The book analyses avant-garde's examination of its internal strategies of identity and canonization, and the importance of Futurism for the Pierre Albert-Birot. It charts the details of the argument on simultaneity between Umberto Boccioni and Robert Delaunay, and analyses the critical readings of Fernand Léger's La noce. The dialogue between Occultism and Futurism is explored by discussing the theme of night in the works of the Florentine Futurists. In La cucina futurista, food is separated from its nutritional function, and the act of eating is related to notions of creativity and identity. The book presents unique examples of innovative expressivity in Italian Futurists' free-word poems, and examines poetry celebrating the triumph of modern aviation.

Boccioni – Delaunay, interpretational error or Bergsonian practice?
Delphine Bière

7 The dispute over simultaneity: Boccioni – Delaunay, interpretational error or Bergsonian practice? Delphine Bière Delphine Bière The dispute over simultaneity The dispute opposing the Futurists and Robert Delaunay between 1913 and 1914 focused on notions that were commonly discussed among the avant-garde and gave those artists the opportunity to define their own conception of simultaneity. This dispute also demonstrated the overlapping of various trends in contemporary art, and the artists’ endeavours to distinguish themselves from one another at a time when

in Back to the Futurists
Maintenant, April 1912–July 1913
Dafydd W. Jones

Sonia, for instance, who not infrequently made entries in their simultanist outfits and reportedly caused quite a stir as they danced the tango: ‘The Bullier is a must on Thursdays and Sundays, where the painters Mr and Mme Robert Delaunay are revolutionising ballroom attire with their wonderful simultaneous [sic] Orphist creations,’ wrote Apollinaire.7 The poet and writer Blaise Cendrars recounted one occasion when he had set off, detouring with Cravan, to the Bullier: getting dressed at [Delaunay’s studio on] Rue des Grands Augustins for an evening at the Bal

in The fictions of Arthur Cravan
French paintings of rugby
Bernard Vere

decade of the nineteenth century. Major pieces by Robert Delaunay and Albert Gleizes exhibited during 1913 act as a pivot in my analysis, and recall some of the issues raised in the discussion of the paintings of cyclists. Finally, I will discuss a series of works by the cubist André Lhote painted during and after the First World War that take rugby or soccer as their subject. Doing this enables not simply a close analysis of the works themselves, but also a reading of the way in which attitudes to rugby and soccer changed as the game spread both in terms of geography

in Sport and modernism in the visual arts in Europe, c. 1909–39
Revisiting the Delaunay–Cendrars collaboration on La Prose du Transsibérien
Marjorie Perloff

of the incomparable Tower the great Gibbet and the Wheel (Ville de la Tour unique du grand Gibet et de la Roue) 9 By couleurs simultanées , Sonia Delaunay was referring to something quite specific: M. E. Chevreul’s 1839 treatise The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors ( De la loi du contraste simultané des couleurs ), from which Robert Delaunay derived his doctrine of ‘simultaneism’ as the dynamic counterpoint of otherwise dissonant colours when observed in complementarity. 10 Again, La Prose is a ‘simultaneous’ artwork in that, seen on a

in 1913: The year of French modernism
Lisa Florman

York. Neither Picasso nor Braque could have been terribly pleased with Apollinaire’s ‘purist’ rhetoric. The terms of his analogy suggested that painting was then in the process of turning essentially inwards, making itself out of those things unique to the medium, thus divesting itself not merely of narrative content but even of any representational function. Such claims accorded far better with the work of Robert Delaunay (see Figure 14.7 ) than they did with the cubism of Braque and Picasso. 7 Again, it seems to me significant that Picasso and Braque each

in 1913: The year of French modernism
Abstract only
Effie Rentzou

: Simultaneity is the condition in which the various elements that comprise DYNAMISM appear. It is the result of this great cause which is universal dynamism . It is the lyrical aspect of the modern conception of life, based on the speed and the contemporaneity of knowledge and communications. If we consider the various manifestations of futurist art, we see everywhere the violent affirmation of simultaneity. 34 Simultanéité was thus branded by the futurists as a fundamental aspect of their aesthetic vision. This futurist perception differs from Robert Delaunay’s use

in 1913: The year of French modernism
Der Blaue Reiter and its legacies
Author: Dorothy Price

This book presents new research on the histories and legacies of the German Expressionist group, Der Blaue Reiter, the founding force behind modernist abstraction. For the first time Der Blaue Reiter is subjected to a variety of novel inter-disciplinary perspectives, ranging from a philosophical enquiry into its language and visual perception, to analyses of its gender dynamics, its reception at different historical junctures throughout the twentieth century, and its legacies for post-colonial aesthetic practices. The volume offers a new perspective on familiar aspects of Expressionism and abstraction, taking seriously the inheritance of modernism for the twenty-first century in ways that will help to recalibrate the field of Expressionist studies for future scholarship. Der Blaue Reiter still matters, the contributors argue, because the legacies of abstraction are still being debated by artists, writers, philosophers and cultural theorists today.

Maintenant, November 1913–April 1915
Dafydd W. Jones

development had been led by Robert Delaunay since 1912, gaining salon prominence in the works exhibited by him and Sonia Delaunay. Robert exhibited his Hommage à Blériot and Sonia exhibited her Étude de lumière (prismes électriques), the latter taking as its subject the coloured halos of the night, the newly installed electric street globes on boulevard Saint-Michel; the painting was prominently emblazoned with Cendrars’s name across his and Sonia’s collaborative artists’ book La prose du transsibérien et de la petite Jehanne de France: Right at the entrance may be seen the

in The fictions of Arthur Cravan
Chagall’s Homage to Apollinaire and the European avant-garde
Annette Becker

Herwarth Walden, 12 the founder of Der Sturm , of the Swiss poet Blaise Cendrars and the Italian Ricciotto Canudo. 13 Chagall was certainly well informed: Apollinaire and Walden had become friends in Berlin at the time of the Robert Delaunay exhibition of January 1913. Apollinaire’s aptly titled poem ‘A travers l’Europe’, 14 which he dedicated to Chagall, vividly illustrates the artists’ relationships and interactions at this time. What is most striking in the poem is the speed of things, as if the pace of technology, which fascinated or worried the artists, had

in 1913: The year of French modernism