Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
there in 1944. The Eastman Museum, in Rochester, New York, and the Methodist Church each also have smaller deposits of original Hine prints and negatives from his time in Europe.
Other notables included: Ida Tarbell and William Allen White ( Irwin, 2013 : 84). Hine was one of thirty-seven photographers the ARC hired to record their overseas activities.
By 1913–14, Hine was ‘considered the most extensive and successful photographer of social welfare work in the country’ ( Rosenblum et al. , 1977 : 20).
During his first six months in
This book can be described as an 'oblique memoir'. The central underlying and repeated themes of the book are exile and displacement; lives (and deaths) during the Third Reich; mother-daughter and sibling relationships; the generational transmission of trauma and experience; transatlantic reflections; and the struggle for creative expression. Stories mobilised, and people encountered, in the course of the narrative include: the internment of aliens in Britain during the Second World War; cultural life in Rochester, New York, in the 1920s; the social and personal meanings of colour(s). It also includes the industrialist and philanthropist, Henry Simon of Manchester, including his relationship with the Norwegian explorer, Fridtjof Nansen; the liberal British campaigner and MP of the 1940s, Eleanor Rathbone; reflections on the lives and images of spinsters. The text is supplemented and interrupted throughout by images (photographs, paintings, facsimile documents), some of which serve to illustrate the story, others engaging indirectly with the written word. The book also explains how forced exile persists through generations through a family history. It showcases the differences between English and American cultures. The book focuses on the incidence of cancers caused by exposure to radioactivity in England, and the impact it had on Anglo-American relations.
The suggestive line from which this chapter takes its heading was not of course written by Rochester; rather it comes from Samuel Butler’s Hudibras . One theme that resurfaces in various ways throughout this book, however, is the surprisingly elastic nature of authorial identity in our period, the relative ease with which a Randolph could substitute for a Milton, or a Milton for a Marvell, however much hindsight may have reified the differences between these figures. Such circumstances of unfixity no doubt tell us something important about
2: Provincial matters
Thirty years before Richard Hoggart lived in Rochester, Kathleen McEnery
Cunningham presided at the centre of a lively cultural scene there. In
1914, she had married Francis Cunningham, then secretary and general
manager of James Cunningham, Son and Company, a luxury coach- and
car-making company. She was probably introduced to Cunningham
by his cousin, Rufus Dryer, a good friend of hers in New York and, like
her, an artist and a student of Robert Henri at the Art Students League
a few years earlier. Before her marriage, she lived in New
At the end of his discursive
satire, ‘Tunbridge Wells’, Rochester throws his hands up in
horror at the ubiquity of human depravity:
Bless me thought I what thing is man that
thus In all his shapes he is rediculous: Our selves
with noise of reason wee do please In vaine;
American artist Joan Lyons (b. 1937) has worked in a
remarkable variety of media over the last sixty years, and has produced more than forty
artists’ books. A tremendously influential teacher as well, she was on the faculty of
the Visual Studies Workshop (VSW), an independent, artist-run organisation with a graduate
programme in Rochester, New York, for nearly thirty-five years. 1 Alongside her work as an artist and educator, Lyons has
played a critical role in supporting – and perhaps defining – the field of
libertine that developed at the Restoration court is easily identifiable as an upper class/aristocratic mode of representation, however accurately it could be mapped onto a reality. Libertines were glamorous, dangerous figures beyond the reach of dull, ordinary morality, especially as preached and practised by Puritans.
The most obviously transgressive and subversive figure was John Wilmot, 2 nd earl of Rochester (1647–80), whose work circulated widely in manuscript in the late 1660s and 1670s
We have virtually no documentary evidence
regarding Spenser's whereabouts from summer 1574, when he is last mentioned in
the Pembroke College Account Books, until 1578. In 1578, we can document by two
independent sources that he was employed by John Young, Master of Pembroke and
then Bishop of Rochester. It seems likely that Spenser was employed in London
from 1574 to 1578 by John Young, Master of Pembroke. This continuity of
unrest in the Middle East and on the North West Frontier. To be
‘air-minded’ was to be modem, and aeroplanes, like motor
bikes and wireless, were heavily featured in most inter-war boys’
A new generation of boys’ writers, notably Percy F.
Westerman, George E. Rochester and Captain W. E. Johns promoted the air
hero in juvenile literature. Frequently their heroes were to be found