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Charles E. Curran

9780719082542_C03.qxd 8/9/11 15:52 Page 73 3 Human rights in the Roman Catholic tradition Charles E. Curran This essay will discuss the understanding of human rights in the Roman Catholic tradition. One essay or even one book cannot pretend to cover the entire topic in any depth. This article will focus especially on the official teaching of the hierarchical magisterium. The hierarchical teaching in the general area of the social order has been called Catholic Social Teaching which traces its origins to the encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII in the latter part of

in Religion and rights
Abstract only
The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2008
Editor: Wes Williams

This book addresses the relationship between human rights and religion. The original blurb for the Oxford Amnesty Lectures of 2008 invited speakers and audiences to ponder arguments for the God-given source of human rights. The book explains how biblical inspiration (both Old and New Testament) fuelled the anti-slavery protests and later the civil rights movement in the United States. It develops the particular relevance, for arguments over human rights within Islam, of the writings of the medieval philosopher Muhammad al-Ghazali who justified an openness towards constructive engagement with other traditions. The book shows where the philosophical worldviews that inform the religion of Islam and the rights discourse may be distant from each other. It illustrates the challenge of taking the real world of human practice seriously while avoiding simplistic arguments for pluralism or relativism. The book focuses on Simon Schama's evocation of the religious fervour which helped feed the long struggles for liberation among American slave communities. It discusses the understanding of human rights in the Roman Catholic tradition. The book also shows that the Christian experience of Pentecost and what it means to learn to speak as well as understand another's language, is a continuing resource God has given the church to sustain the ability to suffer as well as respond to those who suffer for the long haul. The book argues that moral progress consists in the universalisation of Western liberal democracy with its specific understanding of human rights.

Judith Richards

Although the reputation of Englands first queen regnant, Mary Tudor (died 1558) had remained substantially unchanged in the intervening centuries, there were always some defenders of that Catholic queen among the historians of Victorian England. It is worth noting, however, that such revisionism made little if any impact on the schoolroom history textbooks, where Marys reputation remained much as John Foxe had defined it. Such anxiety as there was about attempts to restore something of Marys reputation were made more problematic by the increasing number and increasingly visible presence of a comprehensive Catholic hierarchy in the nineteenth century, and by high-profile converts to the Catholic faith and papal authority. The pre-eminent historians of the later Victorian era consistently remained more favourable to the reign of Elizabeth, seen as the destroyer,of an effective Catholic church in England.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Kenneth Parker

Henry Manning’s (1808–92) transition from Anglican to Roman Catholic convert has not received the extensive attention that John Henry Newman’s journey to Roman Catholicism has received. Though more than a half dozen treatments have appeared in recent decades, newly acquired archival resources received by the Westminster Diocesan Archives in 2014 warrant a new appraisal of the events leading to his conversion. How could a committed adherent of the Oxford Movement, who did not initially follow Newman’s example in 1845, make the decision to leave the Church of his birth in 1851? What interior process enabled Archdeacon Henry Manning to preside over the assembly of Chichester clergy that condemned ‘papal aggression’ in 1850, and announce at the conclusion of the vote that he would be received into the Roman communion? This article outlines undercurrents in Manning’s thought, traces of which can be found in his undergraduate years, and considers concepts that culminated in the decision that changed his life, and guided his Roman Catholic ecclesial outlook. His role in shaping the agenda of Vatican I and the post-conciliar era heightens the significance of this background.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
John Wolffe

This article explores evangelical perceptions of the Reformation, with particular reference to the commemoration in 1835 of the tercentenary of the publication of Coverdales English Bible. The first half of the nineteenth century saw a growth in evangelical interest in the Reformation, although historical understanding of the sixteenth century was initially unsophisticated and simplistic equations between past and present were widespread. The 1835 commemoration exposed a tendency to use history as a tool in contemporary controversies between Anglicans and Protestants Dissenters, as well as in the polemics of both against Roman Catholics. It also, however, helped to stimulate the growth of serious scholarly inquiry and publication about the Reformation, notably in the formation (1840) of the Parker Society. The commemorations of the tercentenaries of the accession of Elizabeth I (1858) and of the Scottish Reformation (1860) provide concluding vantage points from which to view the development of historical understanding of the Reformation during the preceding quarter century.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Catholicism and Nonconformity in Nineteenth-Century ‘Jewish Conversion’ Novels
Andrew Crome

This article examines English Evangelical novels focused on the conversion of Jewish characters, published from the 1820s to the 1850s. It concentrates particularly on the way these novels emphasised the importance of the Church of England in constructing national and religious identity, and used Jewish conversion as a way to critique Catholicism and Nonconformity. Jewish worship, rabbinic authority and Talmudic devotion were linked to Roman Catholic attitudes towards priesthood and tradition, while Jews were also portrayed as victims of a persecuting Roman Church. Nonconformity was criticised for disordered worship and confusing Jews with its attacks on respectable Anglicanism. As a national religion, novelists therefore imagined that Jews would be saved by a national church, and often linked this to concepts of a national restoration to Palestine. This article develops and complicates understandings of Evangelical views of Jews in the nineteenth century, and their links to ‘writing the nation’ in popular literature.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
The debate over the Immaculate Conception
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

Victorian Christians; it was also an aspect of the conversation about the nature of woman. Roman Catholics, who were required to believe in the Immaculate Conception once it had been made dogmatic, defined a woman who was unchanging in her sinlessness, while Protestants asserted that sinfulness was integral to each human being. Advanced Anglicans were very hesitant about the dogma; they generally preferred to describe a woman who was born, but not conceived, without sin. Besides marking a distinction (although not always a sharp one) between the Roman Catholic and

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

of the presence of ‘a picture of the Virgin Mary in a gilt frame on the altar’ in the chapel of the Sisters’ orphanage in Devonport,4 she and the other sisters were deviating from Anglican practices and leading the children in their care away from the Church of England.5 In addition to displaying this ‘highly Popish print’,6 the sisters were accused of having special devotions to the Virgin Mary and even of being secret Roman Catholics. Sellon herself was alleged to have kept a rosary under her pillow.7 In the public inquiry of the charges, convened by Henry

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
The Catholic Church in Salford and refugees
Bill Williams

refugees of their own denominations in any number. For the Roman Catholic Church in the Salford Diocese, it was a matter of principle. Whatever the feelings of their congregants, the hierarchy of the Church in Salford was disinclined to put itself out in the rescue of refugees, particularly those of Jewish origin. The response of the Roman Catholic Church to refugees was particularly shaped by the Church’s response to the rise of Fascism. Belgian refugees from the German occupation of 1914, some 3,000 of whom are said to have been given help in Manchester, were received

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

2 The Catholic Virgin Mary T he Virgin Mary described by Victorian Catholics is a familiar figure. She is the default image most have of the Virgin Mary: the young woman who is a fixture in crèche scenes, who lovingly cradles her divine son in Renaissance and Baroque images, and who later in life stands stalwartly and sorrowfully at the foot of the cross. She is the woman to whom Roman Catholics have traditionally turned for intercession, aid, and comfort. This image was developed by medieval Christians and elaborated on by their successors, so that by the

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary