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Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

Germany, Estonia and Greece, the rescue of Russian refugees in Constantinople, the feeding operations and educational activities for children in Hungary, and other relief activities during war and peace. Unlike the ICRC, the American Red Cross had a tremendous production of a hundred films through its Bureau of Pictures (the first film unit to open in 1917 until 1922), recording Red Cross nurses attending to war wounded, the improvement of hygiene and health practices, as well as the assistance provided to civilians from France to the Balkans and North Africa ( Horne

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Refugees in the era of the Great War

This book talks about the mass displacement of civilians, estimated to be 14 to 15 million, in the twentieth-century Europe during the First World War. It looks at the causes and consequences of the refugee crisis and its aftermath, and the attempts to understand its significance. Key sites of displacement extended from Belgium to Armenia, taking in France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, East Prussia, the Russian Empire, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey and Serbia. The German army's occupation of Belgium, France, Poland and Lithuania prompted the mass flight of refugees, as did Russia's invasion of East Prussia in 1914. Jewish, Ruthenian and Polish civilians in the Habsburg Empire fled their homes or were deported by the military to distant locations. Following Italy's attack on Austria-Hungary in May 1915, the Habsburg authorities ordered around 100,000 Slovenian subjects of the empire to leave. The Austrian and Bulgarian invasion of Serbia brought about a humanitarian catastrophe as civilians and the remnants of the Serbian army sought safety elsewhere. However, mass flight of civilian refugees did not begin in 1914 nor did it come to an end in 1918. Muslim refugees fled to the relative safety of Anatolia in order to escape violent persecution by Bulgarian and other forces during the Balkan Wars on 1912-13. There were complex movements of population between Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey before 1914. The complex process of repatriation and resettlement affected soldiers and civilians alike and rarely took place in stable or peaceful circumstances.

Marcia R. Ristaino

government organisations dealt with in matters relating to the refugee communities. How large was the community operating under the supervision of the Russian Emigrants’ Committee? By 1929 the Shanghai refugee community had grown to more than 13,000 persons. 12 The Chinese government was not known to have kept statistics on the arrival of the Russian refugees, but the new Russian Emigrants’ Committee did record the arrival of refugees in Shanghai. The committee counted 10,454 over the period from 1922 through 1929 (see Table

in New frontiers
From refugees to foreign paupers
Tony Kushner

, there was nothing particularly unusual in the Minho’s disembarkation at Southampton.2 Yet alongside this dockside report, the Southampton Times noted elsewhere an emergency meeting of the town’s Board of Guardians. The Mayor of Southampton chaired this meeting prompted by the arrival of ‘poor Russian refugees’ who had been on board the Minho, now stranded in Southampton and for whom ‘something must be done’.3 In the weeks that followed, the nomenclature attached to these arrivals would change rapidly. It was a reflection of wider concerns about migrants in late

in The battle of Britishness
Refugees and state building in Lithuania and Courland, 1914–21
Klaus Richter

social layers’. But there was much work to be done to secure the future of Russians as a national minority in a nationally fragmented order: ‘We do not even know how many of us there are in Latvia, who we are, what we are, what we occupy ourselves with, in what condition of health the Russian population is, how big their power and knowledge for creative and productive work are – we don’t know anything about ourselves’.74 In fact, the Russian community in Latvia at this point was almost 40 per cent smaller than it had been before the war.75 Thousands of Russian refugees

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Robert Bickers and Christian Henriot

international history of migration. This volume restores to the historiography agents and opportunists at present excluded by virtue of their nationality, their status, their silence, or through sheer neglect: destitute White Russian refugees, wealthy Baghdadi Jewish merchants, working-class British men, Japanese petty bourgeois traders, German anti-imperialists, French and American citizens, and the indigenous subjects (and agents) of empire – Chinese, Korean and Taiwanese. Imperialism made a wild frontier zone of East Asia, and the story of

in New frontiers
Silvia Salvatici

The first massive wave of fleeing men and women that contributed to making assistance to refugees the preeminent ‘humanitarian question’ was that of the Russians. The civil war and famine forced more than a million people to leave Bolshevik Russia. Many reached the bordering countries and some carried on westwards: according to an ARC estimate in November 1920, Poland, Germany and France received the greatest number of Russian refugees. 34 The following year, the Moscow government revoked citizenship from all those fleeing, who thus were reduced to the condition

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Jane Martin

Union’s president to Russia. Put on trial, he received a sentence of transportation for life to Siberia, but the residue of the Union found their way to Antwerp, and thence to London following the German invasion of Belgium. Further police raids on Anichken’s lodgings, Bebel House and Chicherin’s flat warned of stormy times ahead. Reporting the Revolutionary politics and the First World War 189 incidents in the Cotton Factory Times, Mary wrote that the confiscated papers included a list of Russian refugees, mostly very poor, who donated money to help fund raising

in Making socialists
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

. The citation also refers to his work with refugees – in 1921, he had also been appointed High Commissioner for Refugees for the League of Nations: The Peace Prize has been awarded to ... Nansen for [his] international work during the past few years. Especially his work for the repatriation of the prisoners of war, his work for the Russian refugees, his work to bring succour to the millions of Russians afflicted by famine, and finally his present work for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace. Nansen passport Although some critics thought his intense focus on the

in Austerity baby
Abstract only
A colonial world
John Darwin

life emphasised in many of the chapters of this volume. Treaty port Japanese were marshalled into residents’ associations. There was a British Residents’ Association, and the British community, like others, maintained internal cohesion in part by a profusion of local publications. A Jewish Association was founded in Shanghai in 1909. Russian Jews in Harbin supported several newspapers, including one in Yiddish. White Russian refugees, argues Marcia Ristaino, turned Shanghai into a major publishing centre for Russian literature

in New frontiers