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The relationship between Scotland and the British Empire in the twentieth century was wide-ranging. This book represents ground-breaking research in the field of Scotland's complex and often-changing relationship with the British Empire in the period. The contours of Scottish intercontinental migration were significantly redrawn during the twentieth century as a consequence of two world wars. The book reveals the apparent means used to assess the complexities of linking places of birth to migration and to various modern attempts to appeal to ethnic diasporas. The strange case of jute brings out some paradoxical dimensions to Scotland's relationship with England and the empire in the twentieth century. The book argues that the Scottish immigrants' perceptions of class, race and gender were equally important for interpreting the range of their experiences in the British Columbia. The mainstay of organised anti-colonialist critique and mobilisation, in Scotland lay in socialist and social democratic groups. The book examines how the Scottish infantry regiments, and their popular and political constituencies, responded to rapidly reducing circumstances in the era of decolonisation. Newspapers such as The Scotsman, The Glasgow Herald, and the Daily Record brought Africa to the Scottish public with their coverage of Mau Mau insurgency and the Suez Crisis. The book looks into the Scottish cultural and political revival by examining the contributions of David Livingstone. It also discusses the period of the Hamilton by-election of 1967 and the three referenda of 1979, 1997 and 2014 on devolution and independence.

Opportunity or exile?

Emigration from Scotland has always been very high. However, emigration from Scotland between the wars surpassed all records; more people emigrated than were born, leading to an overall population decline. This book examines emigration in the years between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Although personal persuasion remained the key factor in stimulating emigration, professional and semi-professional agents also played a vital part in generating and directing the exodus between the wars. Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The book investigates the extent to which attitudes towards state-aided colonization from the highlands in the 1920s were shaped by the earlier experiences of highlanders and governments alike. It lays particular emphasis on changing and continuing perceptions of overseas settlement, the influence of agents and disparities between expectations and experiences. The book presents a survey of the exodus from lowland Scotland's fishing, farming and urbanindustrial communities that evaluates the validity of negative claims about the emigrants' motives vis-a-vis the well-publicized inducements offered through both official and informal channels. It scrutinizes the emigrants' expectations and experiences of continuity and change against the backdrop of over a century of large-scale emigration and, more specifically, of new initiatives spawned by the Empire Settlement Act. Barnardo's Homes was the first organization to resume migration work after the war, and the Canadian government supervision was extended from poor-law children to all unaccompanied juvenile migrants.

informal networks which provided intending migrants with advice and information. 12 As with other migrant groups, a range of personal factors also proved influential. 13 But is Scottish emigration a paradox? If we focus on statistics for the key period of mass European emigration, the nineteenth century, possibly not, for we need to consider the position of England, the

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840

Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The reshaping of the region’s demographic, social and economic map during a century and a half of estate reorganization and clearance fuelled a negative, pejorative and enduring historiography of enforced diaspora, which distorted the diversity of the movement, obscured the significant outflow from other areas and suffused Scottish

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
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the chapter we examine recent representations of nineteenth-century Irish and Scottish emigration and consider the varying importance attached to different understandings of diaspora as a means of explaining this. In the final section, we focus our attention on Australia and New Zealand and consider the relatively limited engagement with ideas of space and place in existing accounts of colonial Irish

in Imperial spaces
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. Since the 1960s, the explosion of scholarly interest in Scottish history has promoted a sophisticated understanding of Scotland’s past. An increasingly important part of this literature has assessed the role of Scots and Scotland abroad. This includes localised and specialised studies of aspects of Scottish emigration and enterprise around the world, some of it written by historians of Scotland, some

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820

, 2004). 8 Harper, Emigration from Scotland Between the Wars. 9 Jim Wilkie, Metagama: A Journey from Lewis to the New World (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 1987 and 2001); Isabel Lindsay, ‘Migration and motivation: a twentieth-century perspective’, in T. M. Devine (ed.), Scottish Emigration and Scottish Society (Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 1992), pp. 154–74. Also see Angela McCarthy, ‘“For spirit and adventure”: personal accounts of Scottish migration to New Zealand, 1921–1961’, in Tom Brooking and Jennie Coleman (eds), The Heather and the Fern: Scottish Migration and New

in Personal narratives of Irish and Scottish migration, 1921–65
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The Scottish diaspora since 1707

Revolution for Scottish emigration to the United States to return to pre-1775 levels. The ongoing war between Britain and France until 1815 was one critical external factor, but so was the diversification of destinations, with Canada emerging as the preferred one among those who did make a move to North America.70 By the time the first reliable emigration statistics are available in 1825, the number of Scots making their way to the US was still only in the low hundreds, which was less than half of those who opted for Canada.71 Even prior to the nineteenth century a good

in British and Irish diasporas
Sir Hector Munro of Novar, 1760–1807

into their own society. The existence of such a close, ongoing relationship between the temporary emigrant and his original community reveals how sojourner homecomings became self-perpetuating, mutually reinforcing and ultimately the basis of a multiplier effect. The very desire to return home prompted the initial individual to encourage and assist others from his region to follow him. This dynamic between homecoming and further departures remains one of the most neglected aspects of Scottish emigration history. Its role in

in Emigrant homecomings

that the exodus of the people continued. Population which had been growing at an annual rate of 1.46 per annum in the crofting regions between 1811 and 1820, fell back to 0.51 from 1821 to 1830 and to –0.03 between 1831 and 1840. It is also the case that in the early 1840s, when Scottish emigration as a whole can be analysed for a brief period, an estimated two-fifths of all Scottish emigrants came from the western Highlands. The outward flow of people, therefore, was maintained. But perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the period from the end of the Napoleonic Wars

in Clanship to crofters’ war