This book is a full-length study of the role of the Scots from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. It highlights the interaction of Scots with African peoples, the manner in which missions and schools were credited with producing ‘Black Scotsmen’ and the ways in which they pursued many distinctive policies. The book also deals with the inter-weaving of issues of gender, class and race, as well as with the means by which Scots clung to their ethnicity through founding various social and cultural societies. It contributes to both Scottish and South African history, and, in the process, illuminates a significant field of the Scottish Diaspora that has so far received little attention.
Recent studies of the Irish and the Scots in New Zealand have pointed to the prevalence of social networks for migrants. This book argues that discrimination, even when experienced, was not a precondition for the ethnic consciousness felt by and ascribed to the Irish and Scots in New Zealand. Rather, most aspects of their ethnic identities were positively constructed and articulated. It contends that overarching narratives of exile had little significance in the development of Irish and Scottish ethnic identities in New Zealand. The book looks at the ways in which Irish and Scottish migrants and their sense of Irishness and Scottishness been examined in studies of the diaspora. A sense of being Irish or Scottish is explored, along with identifications such as Highlander, Lowlander, Northern Irish, and Southern Irish, Britishness; New Zealand identities are also considered. The book highlights the range of sources from which we can obtain some insight into the use of and attitudes towards the Irish and Scottish languages and accents in New Zealand. A range of elements including music, festivals, food and drink, and dress is considered to examine the material tokens of Irish and Scottish ethnicity. Religious and political identities were also important aspects of Scottishness and Irishness. A range of national characteristics is examined among the migrants and their descendants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Views of New Zealand and its indigenous Maori population are further ways in which Irish and Scottish migrants conveyed aspects of their identities.
Although much of this book is concerned with aspects of Scottish politics and Scottish society within Scotland itself, we must also have regard to the important and sizeable Scottish communities elsewhere. Scotland is a country that has experienced large-scale emigration for centuries and there now exists a substantial diaspora population outside the country. We explore the Scottishdiaspora in England in Chapter 11 , where individuals and families have moved from Scotland but remained within the UK. In this chapter we look at the Scots who have
the place they love and know.
This chapter investigates how twenty-first-century Scotland relates to the Scots
Homecomings: finding neverland171
of Europe. It first examines the Scottish approach towards international fans of
Scotland, and in particular the Scottish government’s recent efforts to connect with the Scottish ‘diaspora’. It explores the 2009 ‘Homecoming Scotland’
campaign and the new rhetoric of ‘affinity Scots’. The chapter then turns to
clanship as a zone of contact and interaction. It emerges that there are zones of
living Highlandism in Scotland
Partners in empire: the Scottishdiaspora since 1707
Tanja Bueltmann and Graeme Morton
In early 1884 the Otago Daily Times published a series of letters to the
editor from local pioneer settlers and more recent arrivals to New Zealand
at the heart of which lay the question of identity post-migration.1 It was
an identity defined in no small part by national stereotypes, their use
fuelling, for weeks, an increasingly bitter debate between Scotsmen and
Englishmen in the region, leading one English writer to conclude that he
was ‘happy, most happy, to see that
present in Catholic
colleges were ‘in regular contact with each other’ through an organised
postal service managed by the colleges:56 another example of an ‘unbounded
The range of capacities in which Scots were found in Europe in the
early modern period suggests that an uncritical use of the term ‘diaspora’
has broader issues than semantic quibbles.57 Considering a homogeneous
‘Scottishdiaspora’, or identifying what appear to be coherent ‘groups’ within
this larger diaspora, implies that individuals fitting within these groups
had similar aims, motivations
psychologist Jerome Bruner, these journeys are, without doubt, acts of meaning, but, indeed,
what are the meanings of these acts? Might they be understood, for instance, as a form
of return movement in the distinctive sense outlined above? Such a proposition would
presuppose the existence of a Scottishdiaspora – but on what grounds may this
supposition be made?
dynamics are affected not only by the spatial migration of people and things, but also by the
migration of meanings and discourses across and between
and the quest for a seemingly
lost European folk music tradition.
Piping and the Scots
The bagpipe is one of Scotland’s best-known cultural symbols. Joshua Dickson
of the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama suggests that the bagpipe
Marching Scots: pipe bands85
has acquired symbolic meaning as a national instrument ‘in communities both in
Scotland and throughout the Scottishdiaspora’.6 The pipes mark and make the
Scot, at home and internationally. In his autobiography, the entertainer Harry
Lauder observed how people around the world use bagpipes to
Migrations of people, ideas, beliefs and cultures have closely shaped relations between the nations of the British and Irish Isles. In part this was the result of Anglo-imperialism, which expanded from a heartland around London and the South of England, first, then through the ‘Celtic fringe’, creating hybrid peoples who were both Irish and British, before spreading across the globe. At times, Catholics of both islands were exiled from this narrative of nation-building. Political pressures, economic opportunities, a spirit of adventure and sometimes force, spurred the creation of multiple diasporas from the British and Irish Isles. This book brings together a range of leading scholars who explore the origins, varieties and extent of these diasporas. Wherever Britons and the Irish went, they created new identities as neo-Britons, neo-Angles, neo-Irish, neo-Scots: persons who were colonials, new nationals, and yet still linked to their old country and home nations. British and Irish emigrants also perpetuated elements of their distinctive national cultures in music, literature, saints’ days and broader, diffuse interactions with fellow nationals. These especially commissioned essays explore processes of diaspora-formation from the English Catholic exiles of the sixteenth century, through the ‘Wild Geese’, Jacobites, traders and servants of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the modern colonising diasporas associated with the modern age of mass migration.
We move on to discuss more specific aspects of Scottish identity, using ideas
such as those of Benedict Anderson, Michael Billig, Tom Nairn and Anthony
Smith. We look at how the Scottish nation can be and is defined and, using
data from the census and social attitudes surveys, how individuals within
that nation define themselves. Are Scots increasingly Scottish, still
British or simply ‘not English’? We assess the various layers of identity
that exist, the extent to which a Scottish identity is growing at the
expense of a British one and the longer-term implications of this. The
existing social data is complemented by our recent studies of Scots
throughout Scotland, and the contemporary Scottish diaspora itself.