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Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this more true than in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. Nineteenth-century music hall was known as the 'fount of patriotism'. A heroic and romantic vision of Empire helped to widen the appeal of British imperialism, which newspaper and magazine editors insisted on communicating to the new mass reading public. Juvenile fiction included Victorian children's books, and very few seemed deliberately anti-imperialist. The book offers a bridge between the pre-1914 period and the interwar years and between the public school and state school systems. It discusses the case of Peter Lobengula as a focus for racial attributes in late Victorian and Edwardian times. The imperial economic vision lay ready to hand for the publicists and public relations men who saw the Empire Marketing Board as one of the great opportunities in the inter-war years to develop their craft. The book also argues that whereas the Scout movement was created in the atmosphere of defensive Empire in the Edwardian period, Scouting ideology underwent a significant change in the post-war years. Girl Guides remind us that the role of girls and women in youth organisations and imperial ideologies has been too little studied.

Baden-Powell, Scouts and Guides, and an imperial ideal
Allen Warren

’ in the light of these developments. There will then be a treatment of how the Scout movement was actually taken up within the Empire and the implications for those in London trying to respond to those initiatives. The essay will conclude with some suggestions as to the impact of those imperial concerns upon the individual adult and child involved in the movements. In an essay of this length this

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
Abstract only
John M. MacKenzie

rare attempt at ‘formal’, government-inspired, propaganda. It may be that its most important influence was not in reaching the public directly, though remarkable and extensive efforts were made to do so, but in maintaining the elite’s concern with imperial values in education, public ritual, broadcasting, and film making. Allen Warren argues that whereas the Scout movement was

in Imperialism and Popular Culture
Scouting for rebels
Author: Marnie Hay

This book provides a scholarly yet accessible account of the Irish nationalist youth organisation Na Fianna Éireann and its contribution to the Irish Revolution in the period 1909–23. Countess Constance Markievicz and Bulmer Hobson established Na Fianna Éireann, or the Irish National Boy Scouts, in Dublin in 1909 as an Irish nationalist antidote to Robert Baden-Powell’s Boy Scout movement founded in the previous year. The Fianna soon spread beyond the Irish capital, offering their mainly male membership a combination of military training, outdoor adventure and Irish cultural activities. Between their inception in 1909 and near decimation during the Irish Civil War of 1922–23, Na Fianna Éireann recruited, trained and nurtured a cadre of young nationalist activists who made an essential contribution to the struggle for Irish independence. This book situates the Fianna within the wider international context of uniformed youth groups that arose in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a response to societal anxieties associated with the coming war in Europe. It compares and contrasts the Fianna to other Irish youth groups of the period and demonstrates how the Fianna served as a conduit for future members of adult paramilitary organisations, most notably the Irish Volunteers (later known as the Irish Republican Army).

Marnie Hay

the health, education and moral welfare of the new generation. 18 Uniformed youth groups were one way of addressing this concern. The best known of these youth groups was the international Boy Scout movement founded by Robert Baden-Powell in 1908. A British army officer who specialised in reconnaissance and scouting, Baden-Powell started this movement in response to the interest that boys had shown in his 1899 army training manual, Aids to Scouting . He was also inspired by the model of the Boys’ Brigade, which was launched by William

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23
Male youth, work and leisure, 1870–1914
Brad Beaven

the nation. Contemporaries believed that the city’s degenerate influences had most impact on the impressionable youth, which might eventually result in the creation of a new and more hostile working class.17 Indeed, in a bid to address the manifestation of this physically and socially disfigured youth, contemporaries made a 91 92 Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain more concerted effort to instil the values of ‘good citizenship’ through organised youth activities. Organised youth: the Boy’s Club and Boy Scout movement During the 1870s, a number

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945
Abstract only
Heather Streets

Scout movement, and widespread popular participation in the Volunteer movement were undeniably visible features of this era. 9 Surely, military efforts to popularise the army played a role in helping to create this more militaristic popular culture. Through propaganda like martial race discourse, references to the gritty realities of military service in the Empire were patently written out of military

in Martial races
Abstract only
Robert H. MacDonald

codes, their private speech, or slang; once these things escape to the public world they are debased. Thus after the Boer War the public schools joined in the craze for military scouting, and some cadet corps even adopted slouch hats, but as soon as Baden-Powell’s Boy Scout movement proved generally popular, and Scout troops everywhere were marching around in Scout hats, the public schools lost interest. As the

in The language of empire
Ryan Wolfson-Ford

youth, he created the Lao Scout movement in 1947, 10 and by 1963 he had also moved to put his stamp on schools. The Scout movement engendered loyalty to the throne, and to the king personally. In a newly independent country, still in the process of unification, politically divided and subject to intensifying foreign meddling, the Scouts constituted an important nation-building force. Yet Savang’s youth movement was inextricably linked to earlier Vichy fascist undertakings from the Second World War period. 11 Moreover, his promotion of civics in the school curriculum

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.