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‘Metzengerstein’ (1832), ‘The Visionary’ (1834), ‘Berenice’ (1835), the Imagination, and Authorship‘s Perils
Travis Montgomery

The fusion of Gothic and Eastern details, which one encounters in these stories, is obviously not original to Poe. William Beckford‘s Vathek, Charlotte Dacres Zofloya, and Byrons Eastern tales contain similar blends, but in ‘Metzengerstein’, ‘The Visionary’, and ‘Berenice’ Oriental and Gothic devices, especially the former, serve unique purposes. With these motifs, Poe continues his investigation of authorship, a theme animating his Poems (1831), in which Oriental devices also appear,with surprising frequency. Published shortly before Poe wrote ‘Metzengerstein’ this volume showcases verse dealing with the craft of writing and the nature of inspiration, and in several poems from this collection, ‘East’ and ‘West’ operate as metaphorical shorthand, with ‘East representing poetic genius and ‘West’ suggesting unimaginativeness. Middle-Eastern devices serve related purposes in #8216;Metzengerstein’, ‘The Visionary’, and ‘Berenice’, stories sharing thematic correspondences with the poems that preceded them. In particular, these tales evince Poe‘s anxieties about authorship, its demands, and its pitfalls. Throughout the narratives, Oriental machinery constitutes a network of symbols, collapsing complex ideas into compact metaphors, and with these devices, Poe imaginatively investigates the life of writing in nineteenth-century America, where professional writers struggled to satisfy a mass audience while following their own aesthetic inclinations. Such experiences no doubt proved ‘Gothic’ for these authors working in a society transformed by industrialization, a space where commercial trends impinged on creativity and threatened artistic freedom. Gothic fiction offered a proper vehicle for Poe‘s own anguished response to the challenges he and others faced while negotiating their conflicting roles as artists and professionals. For Poe, preserving the sanctity of the imagination, figuratively associated with the Middle East, was paramount, and ‘Metzengerstein’, ‘The Visionary’, and ‘Berenice’, all of which employ Gothic and Oriental devices, dramatize artistic failure, the betrayal of genius resulting in imaginative decay or death.

Gothic Studies

For women writers, the decades of the English Civil War were of special importance. This book presents a complex and rewarding poetic culture that is both uniquely women-centred and integrally connected to the male canonical poetry. It brings together extensive selections of poetry by the five most prolific and prominent women poets of the English Civil War: Anne Bradstreet, Hester Pulter, Margaret Cavendish, Katherine Philips, and Lucy Hutchinson. All these five women were attracting new and concerted attention as poets by seventeenth-century women. Bradstreet's poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, and the later volume of Several Poemsincluded revised texts of those poems and several new ones. Each version of the poems spoke more directly on the context of the English Civil War. Pulter's poems construe Broadfield as a place of unwelcome isolation: she describes herself as 'shut up in a country grange', 'tied to one habitation', and 'buried, thus, alive'. Philips's poetry was first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, suggest Philips as a poet writing on matters of political significance. Cavendish's two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. Across poetry and prose, print and manuscript, Hutchinson's writing bears the marks of her fervent hostility to corrupt rulers and her remarkably broad education, adventurous reading habits, and energetic intellect.

Patricia Pender

woman writer who would not, or could not, call herself a poet.1 This chapter reconsiders Bradstreet’s now famous pronouncements of authorial reluctance in her two seventeenthcentury printed publications: The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, published ostensibly without her consent in London in 1650, and Several Poems, published six years after her death, but with material that she had clearly designed for publication, in Boston in 1678. If Bradstreet has traditionally been considered a prime example of the humble, submissive and self-effacing woman poet, this

in Early modern women and the poem
Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

arranged according to their groupings in the copy-texts that we have chosen, in order to reflect something of the poems’ complex textual histories. Anne Bradstreet’s poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America (1650), and the later volume of Several Poems (Boston, 1678) included revised texts of those poems, as well as a number of new ones. We have used The Tenth Muse as our copy-text in this edition for all poems that occurred in it, and Several Poems for poems printed only there. We have made this choice in part because the versions of the poems

in Women poets of the English Civil War
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Rachel Adcock, Sara Read, and Anna Ziomek

lameness. 75 Want: lack. 76 Major’s Sin and Mercy Briefly Discovered includes several poems on particular sins, including pride caused by beauty, immodesty, drunkenness and covetousness, which she thought would bring her criticism because they were not acceptable subjects for women’s verse. 77 F&S.indb 77 2/20/2014 9:39:55 AM Exemplary conversion narratives For when I had in my thoughts in some measure unmasked sin, and saw the ugly deformity of it, and how there was no sin but might in some kind be owned by me, the seed of all by nature being in me, free grace only

in Flesh and Spirit
Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

written towards an ending of The Four Monarchies (see lines 3452–53 of that poem). Her poems after this date seem to have been predominantly personal: a second, posthumous edition of her poetry was published as Several Poems in 1678 (see Figure 1), and includes several additional poems that attest to her life as a wife, mother, and grandmother. Until recently it has been on these more personal poems, and on her 30 Anne Bradstreet publication as America’s first female poet, that her poetic reputation has rested. Only more recently have the aesthetics and political

in Women poets of the English Civil War
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Rachel Adcock, Sara Read, and Anna Ziomek

’ – that eternal life was given only to an elect few, predetermined by God. More’s volumes, which are mostly prose but with several poems, demonstrate her piety and instruct all believers to engage in regular spiritual practices. Two works – The Holy Practises of a Devine Lover or the Sainctly Ideots Devotions (1657) and The Spiritual Exercises of the Most Vertuous and Religious D. Gertrude More (1658) – were published in Paris. More declares that she wrote only for her own benefit and the purpose of her 1 Dorothy L. Latz, ‘Glow-Warm Light’: Writings of 17th Century

in Flesh and Spirit
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Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

manuscript writing and exchange, but these manuscript-based texts have been far less visible to literary history than the printed tradition. Hester Pulter’s and Lucy Hutchinson’s poems exemplify the extent and depth of women’s poetry in manuscript culture, as do the extensive manuscript-based activities of Katherine Philips. This anthology presents these manuscript poems alongside those that were printed in the volumes of Anne Bradstreet (The Tenth Muse, 1650; Several Poems, 1678), Margaret Cavendish (Poems and Fancies, 1653 and 1664), and Philips (Poems, 1664 and 1667

in Women poets of the English Civil War
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A spiritual wit
Laura Alexander

chooses the retirement mode for several poems and the painting, Self-Portrait. The kind of spiritual self that she imagines in her works lacks any desire for worldliness. She paints natural settings as safe retreats that she distinguishes from the public eye of the court. Killigrew at times expresses anger and other times avoidance, like Finch, and looks for an ‘absolute retreat’ from the constant scrutiny women endured at court. Killigrew paints herself in her Self-Portrait without formal court attire and in a woodland, making an important statement about her lack of

in Writing and constructing the self in Great Britain in the long eighteenth century
A therapy and a pharmacopoeia
Alexandra Parsons

, several poems are reproduced. The melancholy poems are set in the landscape of the Ness and dwell on mortality, AIDS, loss and self-doubt. The first asks ‘ Is there nothing but mortality? ’ ( Derek Jarman's Garden , p. 73). The second is written on the occasion of Jarman's friend Howard Brookner's death in New York: ‘ How can anything endure / the terrible rising of the sun, / the death of a thousand summers? ’, Jarman asks. ‘ All our memories are wasted ’, he laments, ‘ the wild night fucking you / on the floor of Heaven –’ ( Derek Jarman's Garden , p. 74). The

in Luminous presence