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Catherine Spencer

disciplinary effects. Minujín’s engagement with communication resulted from her obsession with sociability. Communication was primarily a means to an end: obtaining understanding of, and leverage within, social groupings and hierarchies. Minujín’s peripatetic movement between Latin America, Europe and the USA during the 1960s and 1970s partly explains why, despite having achieved celebrity status in Argentina (where, as Inés Katzenstein observes, she is ‘practically a TV star’) her work has only gradually been integrated into wider histories of Pop art and performance. 3

in Beyond the Happening
Joris Vandendriessche

1 Sociability and medical reform In 1841, the Antwerp physician Jean-Corneille Broeckx measured the state of Belgian medicine. Discussing each medical institution in turn, from the late eighteenth century to his own time, Broeckx composed one of the best-documented contemporary accounts of early nineteenthcentury Belgian medicine.1 Among the institutions discussed by Broeckx were the state-directed academies of the late eighteenth century, the first short-lived medical societies of the revolutionary period, but also the medical societies, in which more numerous

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
The first two decades of learning
Daniel Weinbren

4 Sensemaking and sociability: the first two decades of learning ‘The first and most urgent task before us’, said Lord Crowther in his foundation speech, ‘is to cater for the many thousands of people, fully capable of a higher education, who, for one reason or another, do not get it.’1 The Open University’s first Chancellor made it clear that teaching and learning were to be at the core of the new institution. His ambitious target was to support part-time and mature students without prior qualifications to complete ­modules which need not necessarily lead to a

in The Open University

When physicians gathered in medical societies to present, share, discuss, evaluate, publish and even celebrate their medical studies, they engaged in a community with specific practices, rules and manners. This book explores the formal and subtle ways in which such norms were set. It analyzes societies’ scientific publishing procedures, traditions of debate, (inter)national networks, and social and commemorative activities, uncovering a rich scientific culture in nineteenth-century medicine. The book focuses on medical societies in Belgium, a young nation-state eager to take its place among the European nations, in which the constitutional freedoms of press and association offered new possibilities for organized sociability. It situates medical societies within an emerging civil culture in Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp, and shows how physicians’ ambitions to publish medical journals and organize scientific debates corresponded well to the values of social engagement, polite debate and a free press of the urban bourgeoisie. As such, this book offers new insights into the close relation between science, sociability and citizenship. The development of a professional academic community in the second half of the century, which centered around the laboratory, went hand in hand with a set of new scientific codes, mirroring to a lesser extent the customs of civil society. It meant the end of a tradition of ‘civil’ science, forcing medical societies to reposition themselves in the scientific landscape, and take up new functions as mediators between specialties and as centers of postgraduate education.

Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva, Ann-Christin Zuntz, Ruba al Akash, Ayat Nashwan, and Areej Al-Majali

) with our interlocutors, we hoped to get a better sense of their everyday life routines and female sociability, which might have gone unnoticed in a more formal interview setting. Like Guha (2019) , we avoided questions which singled out a specific traumatic moment, putting family life in exile in the context of women’s wider life course. With this study, we add to recent scholarship that highlights the complex nature of Syrian women’s narratives, their creative engagement

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Medical culture and identity in provincial England, c.1760–1850
Author: Michael Brown

This book talks about late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century English medical culture, a study of what it meant to be a doctor and how this changed over time. It presents a brief overview of the social, economic and cultural landscape of late eighteenth-century York. Medical culture and identity in late eighteenth-century York took shape within a social landscape shaped by the values of gentility, polite sociability and civic belonging. The book examines the role of intellectual liberality, demonstrating how public displays of polite and 'ornamental' learning were central to the performance of medico-gentility. It explores the incipient demise of this culture. Through a close reading of a scandal which enveloped the York Lunatic Asylum, it also explores the ways in which medical identities founded upon gentility and politeness were critically undermined by the political and social factionalism. The book looks at medical involvement in the provincial scientific movement, examining how local medical men positioned themselves relative to the so-called 'march of intellect', the cultural and ideological alignment between science and social reform. It continues this analysis in relation to the cholera epidemic of 1832 and other medico-political activities. The book considers how the professional dominion over healthcare was forged by the dual processes of inclusion and exclusion. It discusses the foundation of the Medical School in 1834 against the trial, in the same year, of a local salesman for James Morison's 'Universal Vegetable Medicine'.

A royal city in a time of revolution
Author: J. F. Merritt

This book examines the varied and fascinating ways in which the series of non-monarchical regimes of England’s civil wars and interregnum interacted with the unique locality and community of Westminster. Westminster (as opposed to London) was traditionally viewed as the ‘royal’ city – the site of Whitehall Palace and the royal courts of justice, its Abbey reputed to be the ‘house of kings’, and its inhabitants assumed to be instinctive followers of the monarch and the royal court. Westminster emerges in this study as a site of extraordinary ambiguities and juxtapositions. The promoters of vigorous moral reformation and a sustained and often intrusive military presence coexisted uneasily with the area’s distinctive forms of elite sociability and luxury. The state’s foremost godly preachers performed in close proximity to royalist churchmen. More generally, the forces of political, religious and cultural conservatism can be observed on the very doorstep of parliament and non-monarchical regimes. Yet for Westminster as a whole, this was the time when the locality became tied to the state more tightly than ever before, while at key moments the town’s distinctive geography and local government played a significant role in shaping the political crises of the period. Chapters analyse the crisis of 1640-42, the use of Westminster’s iconic buildings and spaces by the non-monarchical regimes, the sustained military occupation of the locality, the problems of political allegiance and local government, the religious divisions and practices of the period, and the problematic revival of fashionable society in a time of political tension.

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Universities, networks and the British academic world 1850–1939
Author: Tamson Pietsch

At the start of the twenty-first century we are acutely conscious that universities operate within an entangled world of international scholarly connection. Empire of scholars examines the networks that linked academics in Britain and the settler world in the age of 'Victorian' globalisation. It argues that long-distance personal connections were crucial to the ways late nineteenth and early twentieth century universities operated and central to the making of knowledge in them, and shows that such networks created an expansive but exclusionary ‘British academic world’ that extended far beyond the borders of the British Isles. Drawing on extensive archival research, this book remaps the intellectual geographies of Britain and its empire. In doing so, it provides a new context for writing the history of ideas and offers a critical analysis of the connections that helped fashion the global world of universities today.

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Hotels and Egyptologists’ social networks, 1885–1925

Tea on the terrace takes readers on a journey up and down the Nile with archaeologists and Egyptologists. Travellers such as Americans Theodore Davis, Emma Andrews, and James Breasted, as well as Britons Wallace Budge, Maggie Benson, and Howard Carter arrived in Alexandria, moved on to Cairo, travelled up the Nile by boat and train, and visited Luxor. Throughout the journey, readers spend some time with them at their hotels and on their boats. We listen in on their conversations, watch their activities, and begin to understand that much archaeological work was not done at the field site or in the university museum, as many historians have argued. Instead, understanding the politics of conversation in the social studies of science, the book shows that hotels in Egypt on the way to and from home institutions and excavation sites were liminal, but powerful and central, spaces which became foundations for establishing careers, building and strengthening scientific networks, and generating and experimenting with new ideas. These are familiar stories to readers, but Tea on the terrace presents them in a new framework to show Egyptologists’ activities in a seemingly familiar but unknown space. A mix of archaeological tourism and the history of Egyptology, the book is based on original archival research, using letters, diaries, biographies, and travel guides as well as secondary sources.

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Joris Vandendriessche

upholding one’s reputation in the medical community – a matter 2 Medical societies and scientific culture which, as Lesseliers’ complaints reveal, was considered of utmost importance. Lesseliers’ editorial practices direct our attention to aspects of medical sociability that have hitherto been rarely studied. When physicians gathered in medical societies to present, share, discuss, evaluate, publish and even celebrate their medical studies, they engaged in a scientific community with specific practices, rules and manners. These customs and codes of conduct, and the

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium