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Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

social media for research communication. We define social media as those internet-based tools and platforms that allow individuals to create content, some of which also facilitate conversations and networking between individuals. Social media offer the potential of many-to-many communication, though in practice we also see both few-to-many (for example high-profile Twitter or YouTube accounts that have many followers) and few-to-few (for example, some LinkedIn Groups have only a few hundred members, but many of these members post regularly and comment on each other

in Creative research communication
Barrie Gunter

5 Branding potential of online social media When it comes to eating Nestle’s Polo Mints, do you suck them or crunch them? On a website created by the company, visitors are invited to click on whether they see themselves as one type or the other (www.polomint.co.uk). They are then directed to join fellow ‘Suckers’ or ‘Crunchers’ on a social media site. These two types of fans of the brand could then exchange brand experiences with each other. The Wrigley’s Extra website (www.wrigleys.com/uk/brands/extra.aspx) provides access to a social media community in which

in Kids and branding in a digital world
Paul Reilly

This book examines the ways in which contentious parades and protests in ‘post-conflict’ Northern Ireland are contested by affective publics mobilised on social media. In this way, it will contribute to the extant interdisciplinary scholarship on digital citizenship and the role of digital media in contemporary social movements. This chapter contextualises the research findings presented throughout this book by exploring three key issues. First, it introduces the contentious politics framework and applies it to the Northern Irish conflict. Second, it explores

in Digital contention in a divided society
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski, and Svenja Mintert

96 Ultras 4 Social media as a space of continuous performance Throughout the season fans everywhere are filled with excitement and anticipation as their teams battle and compete for glory and to avoid disappointment. The success and failure of football clubs becomes a symbolic representation of individuals, cities, regions and nations across the globe. Yet the competition is not limited to what takes place on the field. For ultras, status and solidarity is reflected in their spectacular choreographies, and the new season provides more opportunities for

in Ultras
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

3 Social media, mutual aid and solidarity movements as a response to institutional breakdown Introduction Earlier in this book, we discussed media coverage of wars, and international relations more generally, and how this produces a sense of helplessness, confusion and general distrust for media audiences. Information about global conflicts seems inadequate, biased, and does not give people enough of a conceptual framework to understand or respond. This is connected to a sense that international and national governments are failing to deal with global conflicts

in How media and conflicts make migrants
Regina E. Rauxloh

69 4 Regina E. Rauxloh ‘Kony is so last month’ –​lessons from social media stunt ‘Kony 2012’ Introduction The role of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is to bring those responsible for committing the most serious crimes to justice when no domestic court is willing or able to do so. Although as of 2015, the Court has as many as 123 member states, one of its most crippling weaknesses is its lack of enforcement power.1 The ICC is entirely dependent on the co-​operation of national states, whether it is for enabling investigation by permitting entry into a

in Law in popular belief
Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

-immigrant fringes, was bolstered by the statements of the European border control agency Frontex, caught fire on social media, was then repeated by major media outlets, politicians and prosecutors, and eventually became policy of the then-government of Italy, under Interior Minister Matteo Salvini. It achieved its moment of (temporary) victory in 2018 with the closing of Italian ports to NGO vessels and the halting of search and rescue operations by NGOs on the Mediterranean. The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The passion and performance of contemporary football fandom

Since their emergence in Italy in 1968, ultras have become the most dominant style of football fandom in the world. Since its inception, the ultras style has spread from Southern Europe across North Africa to Northern and Eastern Europe, South East Asia and North America. This book argues that ultras are an important site of enquiry into understanding contemporary society. They are a passionate, politically engaged collective that base their identity around a form of consumption (football) that links to modern notions of identity like masculinity and nationalism. The book seeks to make a clear theoretical shift in studies of football fandom. While it sits in the body of literature focused on political mobilisations, social movements and hooliganism, it emphasises more fundamental sociological questions about group formation, notably collective performances and emotional relationships. By focusing on the common form of expression through the performance of choreographies, chants and sustained support throughout the match, this book shows how members build an emotional attachment to their club that valorises the colours and symbols of that team, whilst mobilising members against opponents. It does this through recognising the importance of gender, politics and violence to the expression of ultras fandom, as well as how this is presented on social media and within the stadium through specular choreographies.

Social media, parades and protests in Northern Ireland
Author: Paul Reilly

This book explores how social media are used by citizens to frame contentious parades and protests in ‘post-conflict’ Northern Ireland. It provides the first in-depth analysis of how Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were used by citizens to contest the 2013 union flag protests and the Ardoyne parade dispute (2014 and 2015). An essential read for researchers interested in digital mis- and disinformation, it will examine how citizens engaged with false information circulating on these platforms that had the potential to inflame sectarian tensions during these contentious episodes. It also considers the implications of this online activity for efforts to build peace in deeply divided societies such as Northern Ireland.

The book uses a qualitative thematic approach to analyse Facebook, Twitter and YouTube content generated during the flag protests and Ardoyne parade dispute between 2012 and 2016. It also draws on semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders including bloggers, political commentators and communication officers from the main political parties, as well as the results of a qualitative content analysis of newspaper coverage of these contentious public demonstrations.

Theory and practice

Considering how to communicate your research or engage others with the latest science, social science or humanities research? This book explores new and emerging approaches to engaging people with research, placing these in the wider context of research communication. Split into three sections, Creative Research Communication explores the historical routes and current drivers for public engagement, before moving on to explore practical approaches and finally discussing ethical issues and the ways in which research communication can contribute to research impact.

Starting from the premise that researchers can and ought to participate in the public sphere, this book provides practical guidance and advice on contributing to political discourse and policymaking, as well as engaging the public where they are (whether that is at the theatre, at a music festival or on social media). By considering the plurality of publics and their diverse needs and interests, it is quite possible to find a communications niche that neither offers up bite-sized chunks of research, nor conceptualises the public as lacking the capacity to consider the myriad of issues raised by research, but explains and considers thoughtfully the value of research endeavours and their potential benefits to society.

It’s time for researchers to move away from one-size fits all, and embrace opportunities for creative approaches to research communication. This book argues for a move away from metrics and tick box approaches and towards approaches that work for you, as an individual researcher, in the context of your own discipline and interests.