In the majority of German towns, access to learned culture was provided not through universities, academies or princely courts, but through Latin schools, the German equivalent to English grammar schools. This book is the first in-depth study of a footsoldier of the seventeenth-century German Republic of Letters. Its subject, the polymath and schoolteacher Christian Daum established himself as a scholar by focusing on how he convinced others that he was one. He did so through his dress, the way he conducted his married life and the ideal of scholarship to which he ascribed. Schools in the German culture, were focal points of Lutheran learning outside of universities and courts, as places not just of education but of intense scholarship. The most influential paradigm concerning German education remains Gerald Strauss' concept of an 'indoctrination of the young', where he argued that reformers had been able to restructure Lutheran schooling to suit their doctrinal purposes. In the seventeenth century, the Lutheran territories of the Holy Roman Empire saw a flood of publications on pedagogical method and matters of education in general. The book examines the changes that the Zwickau curriculum underwent in the seventeenth century. Anthony La Vopa's seminal study on poor students and clerical careers in eighteenth-century Germany raised important questions on social mobility through education. Christian Daum's network of correspondents was an instrument for maintaining and expanding his position within the Respublica litteraria. Teacher-scholars like Daum expressed a sense of mission towards the cause of humanist education and scholarship.
The book is a comprehensive and definitive history of the Leeds Jewish community, which was – and remains – the third largest in Britain. It is organised in three parts: Context (history, urban, demography); Chronology (covering the period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1940s); and Contours (analysing themes and aspects of the history up to the present time). The book shows how a small community was affected by mass immigration, and through economic progress and social mobility achieved integration into the host society. It is a story of entrepreneurial success which transformed a proletarian community into a middle-class society. Its members contributed extensively to the economic, social, political and cultural life of Leeds, which provided a supportive environment for Jews to pursue their religion, generally free from persecution. The Leeds Jewish community lived predominantly in three locations which changed over time as they moved in a northerly direction to suburbia.
, poorly paid temporary work and marginal forms of
self-employment ( TUC, 2017 ). Wages have stagnated,
and socialmobility stalled. Moreover, it is widely accepted that today’s young no longer
enjoy the life chances of their parents ( Corlett,
2017 ). Given this downturn, living the dream has meant a massive expansion of debt
financing ( Streeck, 2017 ). The acceleration of economic informality in the global South has been matched by the
residualisation of market protection in the North. As this conjuncture suggests, the greatest
This book explores the Spanish elite’s fixation on social and racial “passing” and “passers” as represented in a wide range of texts produced in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It examines literary and non-literary works that express the dominant Spaniards’ anxiety that socially mobile New Christians could impersonate and pass as versions of themselves. Current scholarship has implicitly postulated that the social energy that led to the massive marginalization of New Christians and/or lowborns from central social spaces, and the marginals’ attempts to hide their true identity, had its roots in the elite’s rejection of sociocultural and genealogical heterogeneity, or “difference.” Christina Lee makes a key intervention in this discussion by proposing that there was a parallel phenomenon at play that might have been as resounding as an anxiety roused by the presence of those who were clearly different, a phenomenon she calls “the anxiety of sameness.” Lee argues that while conspicuous religious and socio-cultural difference was certainly perturbing and unsettling, in some ways, it was not as threatening to the dominant Spanish identity as the potential discovery of the arbitrariness that separated them from the undesirables of society. Students and seasoned scholars of Spanish history and literature will not only benefit from Lee’s arguments about the elite’s attempt to deny the fluidity of early modern identity, but also gain from her fresh readings of the works of Cervantes, Lope de Vega, and Quevedo, as well as her analyses of lesser known works, such as joke books, treatises, genealogical catalogues, and documentary accounts.
The pupils: educational strategies and
Pupils in the Holy Roman Empire’s Lutheran regions were spoilt for choice: at
the more ambitious end of the spectrum, teacher-scholars vied with each other
to attract pupils and promised esoteric topics and teaching methods not available elsewhere, while lesser schools competed by charging less and by promising a faster and less gruelling transition through their more modest curricula.
Yet how did pupils negotiate these options, and to what uses did they put their
We still know very little about
than balanced by those Leeds Jews choosing to leave the city, not returning to the original home country (as is common with certain ethnic groups) but often to London, following their children, or to Israel after 1948. It is said that families whose origins lie elsewhere are more likely to be willing to up sticks a second time, and there is a sizeable Leeds Jewish diaspora both elsewhere in the UK and in Israel and beyond.
What happened to these alien incomers over two or three generations is a remarkable story of socialmobility. In political
winning or losing money. This was a popular story line in the 1930s. 1 It slipped from favour as extremes
of poverty and wealth became less evident after the war. Instead, treatments
of socialmobility came to focus as much on what was lost as what was
Class position is crucial in two
Boulting brothers films, though neither does much to illuminate socialmobility in postwar days. Fame is the Spur (d. Roy Boulting, 1947
habitual consumption behaviour, whereas traditional neoclassical economic
analyses of consumption typically take income as the primary determinant. In
this section we use real consumption data to show that in many cases, although
income is important, social class is often a stronger determinant, as would be
predicted by Bourdieu. We assume that social class represents the context in
which tastes are formed and consumption routines executed. Moreover these
contexts have a persistent effect which lasts even when the social class changes.
Thus socialmobility will affect
in sociology and history which explores how people talk
about class and the particular identifications they make. Here we see individuals displaying a strong sense of working class identification, often in spite of
socialmobility, and formed by encounters with class others. While mobility
for some might provoke painful recognitions and ambivalent identifications,
others managed transitions with greater ease and could reconcile working
class backgrounds with later middle class identities. Building upon Savage’s
work in particular, I argue that a feeling of
Civic communities, humanist education and the ‘Age of Enlightenment’
Alan S. Ross
rudimentary sense with classical culture, providing further foundation for
the acceptance of Latin school education in a community dominated by artisan
production and commerce.
The considerable extent of socialmobility among Zwickau pupils suggests that the school more than fulfilled its function as a preparatory institution. Among those pupils who continued on to university, pupils from artisan
backgrounds featured as well as ones from professional backgrounds. The reason this investment in education was worth it also for artisan families was the
extraordinary extent to