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Five lives from twelfth-century Germany

Noble society in the twelfth-century German kingdom was vibrant and multi-faceted, with aristocratic families spending their lives in the violent pursuit of land and power. This book illuminates the diversity of the aristocratic experience by providing five texts that show how noblemen and women from across the German kingdom, from Rome to the Baltic coast and from the Rhine River to the Alpine valleys of Austria, lived and died between approximately 1075 and 1200. The five subjects of the texts translated here cut across many of the strata of German elite society. how interconnected political, military, economic, religious and spiritual interests could be for some of the leading members of medieval German society-and for the authors who wrote about them. Whether fighting for the emperor in Italy, bringing Christianity to pagans in what is today northern Poland, or founding, reforming and governing monastic communities in the heartland of the German kingdom, the subjects of these texts call attention to some of the many ways that noble life shaped the world of central medieval Europe.

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Katherine Fierlbeck

society encounters on its road is political entrepreneurship, imagination, patience here, impatience there, and other varieties of virtu and fortuna – I cannot see much point (and do see some danger) in lumping all of this together by an appeal to Gemeinsinn. (Albert O. Hirschman 1994 : 216) Genealogy and

in Globalizing democracy
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Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz, and Julian Cooper

Bacon 05 3/2/06 10:29 AM Page 102 5 Civil society According to Aleksandr Gurov, a current member and former chairman, the Duma Committee for Security ‘considers the concept of national security in the widest sense. In today’s Russia we have to go beyond protecting only the state’s interests … We think that the state can only flourish and be strong if every citizen is protected from crime, and sometimes from those in power themselves. Only then can a developed civil society exist. The security of the individual and of society is the basis for a state

in Securitising Russia
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Daniel Szechi

(or the organisation) for entirely principled, rational reasons, their commitment soon begins to shade over into their social life. As time goes on, more and more of their friends and acquaintances will be connected with the movement, and more and more of their leisure time will reflect their involvement, even if only to the extent of reading a ‘politically correct’ newspaper or patronising businesses that ‘do the right thing’. The net effect was that Jacobitism generated a dissident commensality within English, Irish and Scots society, that is, it produced

in The Jacobites (second edition)
A class-relational approach

Intended for researchers, students, policymakers and practitioners, this book draws on detailed longitudinal fieldwork in rural south India to analyse the conditions of the rural poor and their patterns of change. Focusing on the three interrelated arenas of production, state, and civil society, it argues for a class-relational approach focused on forms of exploitation, domination and accumulation. The book focuses on class relations, how they are mediated by state institutions and civil society organisations, and how they vary within the countryside, when rural-based labour migrates to the city, and according to patterns of accumulation, caste dynamics, and villages’ levels of irrigation and degrees of remoteness. More specifically it analyses class relations in the agriculture and construction sectors, and among local government institutions, social movements, community-based organisations and NGOs. It shows how the dominant class reproduces its control over labour by shaping the activities of increasingly prominent local government institutions, and by exerting influence over the mass of new community-based organisations whose formation has been fostered by neoliberal policy. The book is centrally concerned with countervailing moves to improve the position of classes of labour. Increasingly informalised and segmented across multiple occupations in multiple locations, India’s ‘classes of labour’ are far from passive in the face of ongoing processes of exploitation and domination. Forms of labouring class organisation are often small-scale and tend to be oriented around the state and social policy. Despite their limitations, the book argues that such forms of contestation of government policy currently play a significant role in strategies for redistributing power and resources towards the labouring class, and suggests that they can help to clear the way for more broad-based and fundamental social change.

Earls Colne, 1550–1750
Authors: H. R. French and R. W. Hoyle

This book uses a study of a north Essex village to make a contribution to our knowledge of England between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Earls Colne has been well known to historians as the parish of the seventeenth-century clerical diarist, Ralph Josselin, and was the subject of an extended research project by Alan Macfarlane in the early 1970s, which informed his study of English Individualism. Now, it is considered in the round with some surprising results. The authors test the theoretical perspectives of both Macfarlane and Robert Brenner, and reach new conclusions about the character of English rural society and the role that land played in it. The book asks fundamental questions about the ownership of land in early modern England and introduces a new methodology to examine these questions. In addition, it is also a study of a village with a resident gentry family — the Harlakendens — showing that the attempts by these new lords to re-mould the village after 1580 alienated many, leading to a series of well-documented power struggles. Ultimately, the book demonstrates that the Harlakendens failed to stamp their mark on the community, and their authority slowly ebbed away. In their place emerged an alternative power system dominated by copyholders and tenant farmers, who provide a rich gallery of village characters.

When physicians gathered in medical societies to present, share, discuss, evaluate, publish and even celebrate their medical studies, they engaged in a community with specific practices, rules and manners. This book explores the formal and subtle ways in which such norms were set. It analyzes societies’ scientific publishing procedures, traditions of debate, (inter)national networks, and social and commemorative activities, uncovering a rich scientific culture in nineteenth-century medicine. The book focuses on medical societies in Belgium, a young nation-state eager to take its place among the European nations, in which the constitutional freedoms of press and association offered new possibilities for organized sociability. It situates medical societies within an emerging civil culture in Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp, and shows how physicians’ ambitions to publish medical journals and organize scientific debates corresponded well to the values of social engagement, polite debate and a free press of the urban bourgeoisie. As such, this book offers new insights into the close relation between science, sociability and citizenship. The development of a professional academic community in the second half of the century, which centered around the laboratory, went hand in hand with a set of new scientific codes, mirroring to a lesser extent the customs of civil society. It meant the end of a tradition of ‘civil’ science, forcing medical societies to reposition themselves in the scientific landscape, and take up new functions as mediators between specialties and as centers of postgraduate education.

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Michael Harrigan

frontiers of servitude 6  Society and slaves By the mid-1630s, the English colony on Saint Kitts had received so much immigration that it extended beyond the agreed boundaries with the French settlement. The English governor had rejected the protests of a French delegation, and the governor d’Esnambuc ordered the population to take up arms. According to Du Tertre’s account, French planters were ordered to send their slaves, each armed with a cutlass and a burning torch, to lay waste to the English plantations when the confrontation began. Capuchin friars

in Frontiers of servitude
Lower office holders
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

Local societies were not independent of their surroundings in most parts of western Europe in the early Middle Ages, perhaps with the exception of some very localised regions in northern Iberia. Most ‘small worlds’ belonged to regional or supra-regional networks and structures. Office holders and agents – ranging from mayors and priests to bishops, counts, viscounts and centenarii (hundredmen) – intervened in local affairs for landowners, kings and other lords they represented. Since kings, powerful lay aristocrats and religious institutions had large

in Neighbours and strangers
Paul Jackson

When interviewed for an edition of Panorama in 1959, the Guyana-born writer and author of To Sir, With Love , E. R. Braithwaite, likened the extreme right to a boil or a pimple growing on the body of democracy. He argued that British society was capable of containing extremist views, as espoused by fascists in Notting Hill in the later 1950s, and he for one saw

in Pride in prejudice