Noble society in the twelfth-century German kingdom was vibrant and multi-faceted, with aristocratic families spending their lives in the violent pursuit of land and power. This book illuminates the diversity of the aristocratic experience by providing five texts that show how noblemen and women from across the German kingdom, from Rome to the Baltic coast and from the Rhine River to the Alpine valleys of Austria, lived and died between approximately 1075 and 1200. The five subjects of the texts translated here cut across many of the strata of German elite society. how interconnected political, military, economic, religious and spiritual interests could be for some of the leading members of medieval German society-and for the authors who wrote about them. Whether fighting for the emperor in Italy, bringing Christianity to pagans in what is today northern Poland, or founding, reforming and governing monastic communities in the heartland of the German kingdom, the subjects of these texts call attention to some of the many ways that noble life shaped the world of central medieval Europe.
society encounters on its road is
political entrepreneurship, imagination, patience here,
impatience there, and other varieties of virtu and fortuna
– I cannot see much point (and do see some danger) in
lumping all of this together by an appeal to Gemeinsinn. (Albert
O. Hirschman 1994 : 216)
5 Civil society
According to Aleksandr Gurov, a current member and former chairman,
the Duma Committee for Security ‘considers the concept of national
security in the widest sense. In today’s Russia we have to go beyond
protecting only the state’s interests … We think that the state can only
flourish and be strong if every citizen is protected from crime, and
sometimes from those in power themselves. Only then can a developed
civil society exist. The security of the individual and of society is the basis
for a state
(or the organisation) for entirely principled, rational reasons, their commitment soon begins to shade over into their social life. As time goes on, more and more of their friends and acquaintances will be connected with the movement, and more and more of their leisure time will reflect their involvement, even if only to the extent of reading a ‘politically correct’ newspaper or patronising businesses that ‘do the right thing’.
The net effect was that Jacobitism generated a dissident commensality within English, Irish and Scots society, that is, it produced
Intended for researchers, students, policymakers and practitioners, this book draws on detailed longitudinal fieldwork in rural south India to analyse the conditions of the rural poor and their patterns of change. Focusing on the three interrelated arenas of production, state, and civil society, it argues for a class-relational approach focused on forms of exploitation, domination and accumulation. The book focuses on class relations, how they are mediated by state institutions and civil society organisations, and how they vary within the countryside, when rural-based labour migrates to the city, and according to patterns of accumulation, caste dynamics, and villages’ levels of irrigation and degrees of remoteness. More specifically it analyses class relations in the agriculture and construction sectors, and among local government institutions, social movements, community-based organisations and NGOs. It shows how the dominant class reproduces its control over labour by shaping the activities of increasingly prominent local government institutions, and by exerting influence over the mass of new community-based organisations whose formation has been fostered by neoliberal policy. The book is centrally concerned with countervailing moves to improve the position of classes of labour. Increasingly informalised and segmented across multiple occupations in multiple locations, India’s ‘classes of labour’ are far from passive in the face of ongoing processes of exploitation and domination. Forms of labouring class organisation are often small-scale and tend to be oriented around the state and social policy. Despite their limitations, the book argues that such forms of contestation of government policy currently play a significant role in strategies for redistributing power and resources towards the labouring class, and suggests that they can help to clear the way for more broad-based and fundamental social change.
This book uses a study of a north Essex village to make a contribution to our knowledge of England between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Earls Colne has been well known to historians as the parish of the seventeenth-century clerical diarist, Ralph Josselin, and was the subject of an extended research project by Alan Macfarlane in the early 1970s, which informed his study of English Individualism. Now, it is considered in the round with some surprising results. The authors test the theoretical perspectives of both Macfarlane and Robert Brenner, and reach new conclusions about the character of English rural society and the role that land played in it. The book asks fundamental questions about the ownership of land in early modern England and introduces a new methodology to examine these questions. In addition, it is also a study of a village with a resident gentry family — the Harlakendens — showing that the attempts by these new lords to re-mould the village after 1580 alienated many, leading to a series of well-documented power struggles. Ultimately, the book demonstrates that the Harlakendens failed to stamp their mark on the community, and their authority slowly ebbed away. In their place emerged an alternative power system dominated by copyholders and tenant farmers, who provide a rich gallery of village characters.
The history and sociology of science has not been well developed in southern Africa as compared to India, Australia or Latin America. This book deals with case studies drawn from South Africa, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), Mozambique and Mauritius, and examines the relationship between scientific claims and practices, and the exercise of colonial power. European intellectuals saw in Africa images of their own prehistory and societal development. The book reveals the work of the Swiss naturalist and anthropologist Henri Junod. The relative status of Franco-Mauritian, Creoles and Indo-Mauritian peasants was an important factor in gaining knowledge of and access to canes. After the Boer War, science was one of the regenerating forces, and the British Association found it appropriate to hold its 1905 meetings in the Southern African subcontinent. White farmers in the Cape Colony in the late nineteenth century often greeted with suspicion the enumeration of livestock and crop. The book focuses on the connections between the apartheid state's capacity to count and to control. Apartheid statecraft included aspirations of totalising modes of racialised knowledge. Included in the theme of state rationality and techniques of domination is the specialized use of dogs by police in apprehending black alleged criminals. The book discusses the Race Welfare Society, which turned to eugenics for a blueprint on how to cultivate a healthy and productive white population. However, George Gale and Sidney and Emily Kark advocated socialised medicine, and had a genuine desire to promote the broad health needs of Africans.
This book is about the impact of decolonisation on British society in the 1960s.
It moves away from the traditional focus on cultural, media, and governmental
archives to analyse public agency and civic forms of engagement with the
declining empire. Through a close examination of middle-class associational life
it broadens our understanding of who had a stake in decolonisation while also
revealing the optimism and enthusiasm with which members of the British public
developed visions for a post-imperial global role. By studying a wide range of
associational organisations this book shows that globalisation and
decolonisation opened up new opportunities for international engagement for
middle-aged members of middle-class society. In the 1960s for many participants
in associational life it became a civic duty to engage, understand, and
intervene to help the shrinking world in which they lived. This book uncovers
how associations and organisations acted on this sense of duty, developing
projects that promoted friendship and hospitality as the foundations of world
peace, visions for secular and religious forms of humanitarianism that
encouraged relationships of both sympathy and solidarity with those in the
global South, and plans to increase international understanding through
educative activities. This book will be useful to scholars of modern British
history, particularly those with interests in empire, internationalism, and
civil society. The book is also designed to be accessible to undergraduates
studying these areas.
When physicians gathered in medical societies to present, share, discuss,
evaluate, publish and even celebrate their medical studies, they engaged in a
community with specific practices, rules and manners. This book explores the
formal and subtle ways in which such norms were set. It analyzes societies’
scientific publishing procedures, traditions of debate, (inter)national
networks, and social and commemorative activities, uncovering a rich scientific
culture in nineteenth-century medicine. The book focuses on medical societies in
Belgium, a young nation-state eager to take its place among the European
nations, in which the constitutional freedoms of press and association offered
new possibilities for organized sociability. It situates medical societies
within an emerging civil culture in Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp, and shows how
physicians’ ambitions to publish medical journals and organize scientific
debates corresponded well to the values of social engagement, polite debate and
a free press of the urban bourgeoisie. As such, this book offers new insights
into the close relation between science, sociability and citizenship. The
development of a professional academic community in the second half of the
century, which centered around the laboratory, went hand in hand with a set of
new scientific codes, mirroring to a lesser extent the customs of civil society.
It meant the end of a tradition of ‘civil’ science, forcing medical societies to
reposition themselves in the scientific landscape, and take up new functions as
mediators between specialties and as centers of postgraduate education.
frontiers of servitude
Society and slaves
By the mid-1630s, the English colony on Saint Kitts had received
so much immigration that it extended beyond the agreed boundaries with the French settlement. The English governor had rejected
the protests of a French delegation, and the governor d’Esnambuc
ordered the population to take up arms. According to Du Tertre’s
account, French planters were ordered to send their slaves, each
armed with a cutlass and a burning torch, to lay waste to the
English plantations when the confrontation began. Capuchin friars