This homily survives in
three manuscripts: Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 201, Oxford,
Bodleian Library, Junius 121, and London, British Library, Cotton
Nero A.i. Pons-Sanz, dates the text to Wulfstan’s London
episcopacy on linguistic grounds, yet both Bethurum and Wormald view
it as a more mature composition, possibly produced in the years
What happens when Chaucer turns up where we don’t expect him to be? Transporting Chaucer draws on the work of the British sculptor Antony Gormley alongside more traditional literary scholarship to show that Chaucer’s play with textual history and chronological time prefigures how his poetry becomes incorporate with later (and earlier) texts. The shuttling of bodies, names, and sounds in and amongst works that Chaucer did write anticipates Chaucerian presences in later (and earlier) works that he did not. Chaucer’s characters, including ‘himself’ refuse to stay put in one place and time. This book bypasses the chronological borders of literary succession to read The Canterbury Tales and Chaucer’s Dream Vision poetry in present company with Chaucerian ‘apocrypha’, and works by Shakespeare, Davenant and Dryden. Conventional models of source and analogue study are re-energised to reveal unexpected (and sometimes unsettling) literary cohabitations and re-placements. Transporting Chaucer presents innovative readings of relationships between medieval texts and early modern drama, and between literary texts and material culture. Associations between medieval architecture, pilgrim practice, manuscript illustration, and the soundscapes of dramatic performance reposition how we read Chaucer’s oeuvre and what gets made of it. Written for scholars and students (undergraduate and graduate) who work in medieval English literary studies and early modern drama, Transporting Chaucer offers a new approach to how we encounter texts through time.
overwhelming dominance of Plutarch’s Life of Antony as the source,
not only of Shakespeare’s play, but of virtually all the
significant prior dramatic ‘sources’ and
‘analogues’, as diligently assembled by Geoffrey Bullough
(1957–75, vol. 5) – from G. B. Geraldi Cinthio’s
Cleopatra (c. 1542) to Samuel Daniel’s (1594– 1607 ). 13
Criticism looking for inter-dramatic relationships has thus found itself
homilies offer a useful illustration of what Wulfstan understood this
role to entail and how he sought to fulfil his joint legal and episcopal
obligations. The themes and passages from his other writings
incorporated into these sermons illuminate those aspects of his
political thought Wulfstan believed to be most important for a broad
audience. The final category includes sourcesandanalogues of
Archbishop Wulfstan of York is among the most important legal and political thinkers of the early Middle Ages. A leading ecclesiastic, innovative legislator, and influential royal councilor, Wulfstan witnessed firsthand the violence and social unrest that culminated in the fall of the English monarchy before the invading armies of Cnut in 1016. This book introduces the range of Wulfstan's political writings and sheds light on the development of English law during the early eleventh century. In his homilies and legal tracts, Wulfstan offered a searing indictment of the moral failures that led to England’s collapse and formulated a vision of an ideal Christian community that would influence English political thought long after the Anglo-Saxon period had ended. More than just dry political theory, however, Wulfstan’s works are composed in the distinctive voice of someone who was both a confidante of kings and a preacher of apocalyptic fervour. No other source so vividly portrays the political life of eleventh-century England: what it was, and what one man believed it could be.
The other romances cited all have some claim to plausibility
as inspiration for Sir Thopas. The one whose relevance for the
‘mourning maidens’ passage is picked out in SourcesandAnalogues
of the Canterbury Tales is Guy of Warwick, specifically for the lines
Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
early in the romance when Guy is commanded by the heroine’s
father to serve her and her maidens at a meal in her chamber:
Þat day Gij dede his miȝt
To serue þritti maidens briȝt;
Al an-amourd on him þai were,
& loued Gij for his feir chere.8
hagiographical motif of the ‘angel of light’ motif popularised by Gregory the Great (‘Saints’ Lives’, p. 44). This episode stands juxtaposed to Cynewulf’s representation of an authentic angelic messenger. See my article, ‘ Angelus Pacis : A Liturgical Model for the Masculine “fæle friðowebba” in Cynewulf’s Elene ’, MÆ , 83 (2014), 189–209.
44 Allen and Calder, SourcesandAnalogues , p. 126.
45 A leaf is missing in Juliana where the devil recites some of his later history.
46 Allen J. Frantzen, ‘Drama and Dialogue in Old English Poetry: The Scene of Cynewulf
The Scottish Legendary as a challenge to the ‘literary turn’ in fifteenth-century hagiography
Eva von Contzen
of Seint Cecile”’, Modern Philology
9.1 (1911), pp. 1–16; G.H. Gerould, ‘The Second Nun’s Prologue
and Tale’, in W.F. Bryan and Germaine Dempster (eds), SourcesandAnalogues of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (New York: Humanities
Press, 1958), pp. 664–84; and Sherry Reames, ‘The Second Nun’s
Prologue and Tale’, in Robert M. Correale and Mary Hamel (eds),
SourcesandAnalogues of the Canterbury Tales, Vol. 1 (Cambridge:
D.S. Brewer, 2002), pp. 491–527.
29 Unfortunately I cannot go into more detail here, but see e.g. Karen
Arthur, ‘Equivocal Subjectivity in Chaucer
all’. 60 It is, in part, because of this fundamental fluidity that Genesis B presents a set of challenges for scholars interested in tracing the poet’s sources. The works of Juvencus, Cyprianus Gallus, Caelius Sedulius, Arator, and Prudentius have all been put forward as likely influences for the fall of the angels in Genesis B . Daniel Calder and Michael Allen’s SourcesandAnalogues postulates that Avitus of Vienne was the most plausible source, while cautioning that his work only contained nine lines devoted to the angelic rebellion, hardly accounting for
— henceforth cited in the text — are drawn
from The Riverside Chaucer, gen. ed. Larry D. Benson, 3rd ed.
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), here Book of the Duchess 597.
6 The chess game appears in Machaut’s Remede de fortune, though
some of the iconography is also found in Le jugement dou roy de
Behaingne. See Barry Windeatt, Chaucer’s Dream Poetry: SourcesandAnalogues (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982); and for a broader consideration of the literary relations, James Wimsatt, Chaucer and the
French Love Poets: The Literary Background of the Book of the Duchess