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As the British and French empires expanded, constructing new imperial dimensions through growing commerce and the relationships of industrialisation, the bases of Spanish power were being undermined. Nationalism, revolt, the pursuit of forms of decolonisation (often aided by Spain's rivals) became the prime characteristic of Central and South American politics. This book examines the study of natural history in the Spanish empire in the years 1750-1850, explaining how the Spanish authorities collected specimens for the Real Jardín Botanico and the Real Gabinete de Historia Natural. During this period, Spain made strenuous efforts to survey, inventory and exploit the natural productions of her overseas possessions, orchestrating a series of scientific expeditions and cultivating and displaying American fauna and flora in metropolitan gardens and museums. This book assesses the cultural significance of natural history, emphasising the figurative and utilitarian value with which eighteenth-century Spaniards invested natural objects, from globetrotting elephants to three-legged chickens. Attention is also paid to the ambiguous position of Creole (American-born Spanish) naturalists, who were simultaneously anxious to secure European recognition for their work, to celebrate the natural wealth of their homelands. It considers the role of precision instruments, physical suffering and moral probity in the construction of the naturalist's professional identity. The book assesses how indigenous people, women and Creoles measured up to these demanding criteria. Finally, it discusses how the creation, legitimisation and dissemination of scientific knowledge reflected broader questions of imperial power and national identity.

Ireland and Bermuda in 1624
Emily Mann

This chapter puts into comparative perspective contemporaneous images of fortifications in Ireland and Bermuda – The State of the Forts of Ireland and ‘A Mappe of the Somer Isles and Fortresses’ – presented and published, respectively, in 1624. The year was one of considerable crisis and consequence for an emergent British nation and empire. In this final year of King James VI/I’s reign, with his foreign policy in tatters, a new war loomed with Spain. Reinforcements were sent to Ireland, regarded by the Spaniards as both a ‘back door’ to and a ‘bridle upon England’, while Bermuda was imagined as an English bridle on Spanish power. The contemporaneous production of surveys of defences in Ireland and Bermuda not only suggests these colonies’ connected roles at a critical moment in England’s international affairs and ambitions, but also underlines the agency of architecture and its representation in parallel processes of colonisation and the pursuit of empire. The visual sources at the centre of the essay expose the comparable construction in Ireland and Bermuda of militarised landscapes of subjugation and oppression that, in future decades and centuries, were together crucial in shoring up English efforts to expand and maintain the empire, and were to dominate the slave trade, in the Caribbean and beyond.

in Ireland, slavery and the Caribbean
Río Escondido
Dolores Tierney

(and its inhabitants) as the remnants of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century neofeudal (i.e., Spanish) power arrangements (Hershfield, 1996 : 63). Hence, the film is about completing the revolution’s unfinished business, by destroying pre-revolution power structures. This is already antithetical to the myth of the revolution, as it suggests the Government has failed so far to do away with unjust political practices. However, the text actually

in Emilio Fernández
Abstract only
Continental powers and the succession
Thomas M. McCoog, SJ

Lorraine, Florence and Bavaria. Even Henry IV, not a great admirer of James, gave him preference for the sake of curbing Spanish power. Thus, the author concluded, Spain should reach an accord with James so that his accession to the English throne would depend on Philip’s assistance.24 In 1597 Philip II arranged the marriage between Archduke Albert Habsburg, an Austrian cousin, and his daughter Isabella, and established them as joint sovereigns of the Spanish Netherlands with semi-independent status. On 6 May 1598, four days after the Peace of Vervins ended the war

in Doubtful and dangerous
Gabriel Glickman

compounded by the revolt and secession of key continental territories. Peace with Madrid was established in 1667, and extended to the Americas three years later. In the southern and island colonies, English governors schemed not to bring down the Iberian Babylon, but to tame it through favourable commercial relations. 83 Under Charles II, English colonial wars were more likely to be fought out against Protestant Dutchmen: the competitors for commerce in the East and West Indies. Yet while Spanish power contracted, new candidates were emerging as contenders for the

in Making the British empire, 1660–1800
Abstract only
Stephen C. Neff

rather to determine, in a given situation, which sets of rights should have the higher priority. In the end, he concluded that the English action was justified by the gravity of the threat posed by Spain. He added that England was even doing the neutral countries a favour by curbing Spanish power and that, for that reason, they were obliged to acquiesce in the measures used. 29

in The rights and duties of neutrals
Religion, trade, and the challenges of English colonialism
Rachel Winchcombe

such text, and it remained banned in Spain until 1726. 79 The fact that the Spanish Crown condemned this book may have appealed to men hostile to Spain such as Francis Walsingham; Cortés may have been a Spaniard, but he was a Spaniard who had defied the authority of his superiors, and who continued to trouble imperial Spain well after the completion of the conquest. Indeed, the threat from Cortés to Spanish power in Mexico continued into the next generation when his son Martín attempted, unsuccessfully, to establish an independent Mexico in 1566. 80 Cortés and his

in Encountering early America
A historical survey
Andreas Osiander

-faceted concept, which of course complicates the matter further. 1 If we look at the history of the various European countries, it is readily apparent that their power – using the term here simply as a ballpark reference to their importance relative to other, similar entities – has waxed and waned. For extended periods of time, the Spanish crown, the French crown or the British crown played a key role in European politics. Of the three, Spanish power was the earliest to reach its climax. By the eighteenth century, it had declined dramatically compared to the period before the

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Labour internationalism as vertical networking?
Paul Routledge
Andrew Cumbers

Year Statoil 16,000 Norway Oil 1998 Freudenberg 27,500 Germany Chemical 2000 Endesa 13,600 Spain Power 2002 Norske Skog 11,000 Norway Paper 2002 AngloGold 64,900 South Africa Mining 2002 ENI 70,000 Italy Energy 2002 SCA 46,000 Sweden Paper 2004 Lukoil 150,000 Russia Oil 2004 Electricite de France 167,000 France Energy 2005 Rhodia France Chemical 2005 20,000 Source: Gibb, 2005 as having played a pioneering role and acquired particular strength with regard to GFAs. Among the GUFs, this makes ICEM less confrontational and

in Global justice networks
Pratik Chakrabarti

supply of medicines and provisions by the Shrewsbury and Cumberland . The cases were, however, accidentally left behind in London. 78 During this war with Spain, Edward Vernon (1684–1757) was appointed Commander-in-Chief in 1739 specifically to crush Spanish power in the Caribbean. In December 1739, soon after taking charge, Vernon attacked Porto Bello. 79 The expedition was successful, making him an overnight hero back home in England. 80 Vernon brought about more than military success to the Caribbean; he

in Materials and medicine