This book is about the European Union's role in conflict resolution and reconciliation in Europe. Ever since it was implemented as a political project of the post-World War II reality in Western Europe, European integration has been credited with performing conflict-resolution functions. The EU allegedly transformed the long-standing adversarial relationship between France and Germany into a strategic partnership. Conflict in Western Europe became obsolete. The end of the Cold War further reinforced its role as a regional peace project. While these evolutionary dynamics are uncontested, the deeper meaning of the process, its transformative power, is still to be elucidated. How does European integration restore peace when its equilibrium is broken and conflict or the legacies of enmity persist? This is a question that needs consideration. This book sets out to do exactly that. It explores the peace and conflict-resolution role of European integration by testing its somewhat vague, albeit well-established, macro-political rationale of a peace project in the practical settings of conflicts. Its central argument is that the evolution of the policy mix, resources, framing influences and political opportunities through which European integration affects conflicts and processes of conflict resolution demonstrates a historical trend through which the EU has become an indispensable factor of conflict resolution. The book begins with the pooling together of policy-making at the European level for the management of particular sectors (early integration in the European Coal and Steel Community) through the functioning of core EU policies (Northern Ireland).
Since the mid-1990s, the European Union has defined the Asia-Pacific as one of its key strategic targets on its ambitious road towards global power. The EU has ever since made consistent efforts to implement strategies, policies and activities in the Asia-Pacific. Over the past decades, big changes have taken place on both sides and the wider world. It is high time to evaluate the EU’s performance in its Asian policy. In fact, the EU is at crossroads with its Asia Pacific policy. On several aspects, the EU is compelled to redefine its interests and roles, and rethink its strategies and policies towards the dynamic and ever-important Asia-Pacific region of the contemporary world. This volume addresses this theme, by elaborating the general context, major issues and countries in the EU’s Asia-Pacific policy. It covers issues and areas of traditional security, economy and trade, public diplomacy, and human security and focuses on the EU’s relations with China, Japan, the ASEAN countries and Australasia.
fits into the broader US alliance presence in Asia, and ignores the far-reaching developments occurring between the two states as they work to build a true bilateral strategicpartnership.
The pace and extent of Australia’s broad security cooperation with Japan is somewhat remarkable when one recalls the suspicion and bitter enmity towards Japan held by Australians in the wake of World War II. However, the combination of the US Cold War alliance system and the re-emergence of an important trading, then political/diplomatic, relationship
1 The European Union in the Asia-Pacific:
Although the EU maintains four (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, India)
out of its ten strategicpartnerships with Asian partners (Reiterer, 2013a)
and is contemplating adding a fifth (with the Association of Southeast Asian
Nations, ASEAN), doubts are harboured in Asia whether the EU can be a
genuine strategic partner. Perceptions may not match: the EU has over the
years developed policy papers dealing with Asia in general (Europe and
Asia: A Strategic Framework for
–Japan partnership has moved beyond
the traditional focus on economics and trade to include a politico-security
dimension. An important driver behind the expansion of the bilateral relations has been the mutual recognition of each other’s growing significance
in the international arena, as well as a shared comprehensive approach to
tackling security challenges. Europe and Japan have entered the second
decade of the twenty-first century with a new priority of raising their bilateral relations to the level of a formal strategicpartnership. To this end, in
2013 Brussels and Tokyo
7 The European Union’s partnership
with China: navigating between trouble
Since 2003 the EU and China have acknowledged each other as strategic
partners. Slowly but steadily they have built a partnership, which constitutes probably one of the most structured relationships between two global
powers in today’s world system. Given the ongoing transformation of the
international system in which the re-emergence of China is a major driver
of change, the EU–China strategicpartnership constitutes an important
Chechnya since 1994, would be a focus of the EU–Russia discourse.
However, the Chechen conflict is not an area of specific dialogue
between the EU and Russia, nor is it a key driver of the relationship.
It only represents a very small component of the relationship, yet
colours all aspects of interaction and remains a fundamental impediment
to the development of a strategicpartnership.
The two actors take
External influences and continental shaping forces
African regionalism: external influences and
continental shaping forces
The Joint Africa–EU Strategy (JAES) (Council of the European Union,
2007) marked another phase in the cooperation between the two continents that had its origins in the post-colonial era for the African countries, and for the new European community founded under the Treaty
of Rome (1957). Presented as a strategicpartnership among the 27
countries of the European Union (EU) and the 53 countries of Africa,
it was framed with the intention to redefine the relations between the
T he EU and Japan have – at least on paper – big plans as regards cooperation in international politics and security. The instrument and agreement through which such increased and institutionalised cooperation is envisioned to take place is the so-called StrategicPartnership Agreement (SPA). The SPA will cover EU–Japan cooperation in regional and global politics and security and is envisioned to give the current EU–Japan ad hoc cooperation in the realms of politics and security an institutional
with a chief
executive. That dual leadership role maintains the uncomfortable and
often precarious balance between politician and senior oﬃcer, both often
competing for domination of the council organisation. There is little in
the English approach to directly elected mayors that does anything to
solve that competition.
Local StrategicPartnerships (LSPs) are the cornerstone of the government’s drive towards community planning and the development of a
community strategy for each council. Each LSP is a single body which