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2 Youth subcultures The New Left cultures that emerged around the VSC in the mid-1960s grew from radical subcultures young activists shaped earlier in the decade. Encounters with these subcultures often occurred in adolescence, the transitional period contemporaries generally regarded as spanning the years between fourteen and twenty-one, between childhood and legal adult age. For most young activists entry into the network around the VSC coincided with the first years of university, so that earlysixties subcultures bridged the social and psychological

in Young lives on the Left
The milieu culture of DIY punk

5 Crass, subculture and class: the milieu culture of DIY punk Peter Webb This chapter presents an account of the activities and social formation of the DIY punk band Crass in order to develop a critique of the notion of ‘subculture’ employed at the time of the group’s existence (1977–85) by the Birmingham University Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS). It supplies a narrative of how the band and the cultural movement known as `anarchopunk’ provided a ‘milieu’ where class identities could blend and develop hybrid forms of cultural and social capital.1

in Fight back
Marie Helena Loughlin

ch a pt e r 6 The New ‘Homosexual’ Subculture, 1700–30 The New ‘Homosexual’ Subculture Introduction In 1691, the Societies for the Reformation of Manners were formed to cleanse England of sin and degeneracy. Although the Societies had many targets, including prostitution, swearing, Sabbath-breaking, and general lewdness, they focused on sexual sin, and particularly on male same-sex erotic relationships, practices, and early communities, engineering the entrapment and subsequent prosecution of ‘homosexuals’, especially those who were apparently beginning to meet

in Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550–1735

9 A youth subculture of drinking P ub and club going would become a mainstay of youth culture beginning in the 1980s, with four-fifths of all youths visiting them during the year. The fifteen- to twenty-four-year-olds were ten times more likely to go pubbing or clubbing than other age groups. Half of this age cohort frequented these venues at least monthly, with city centres of huge Northern cities – Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds, the club heartland – easily outdistancing London. From the mid-1990s, introduction of dance music revolutionized night clubs

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century

4 The Gateways club and the emergence of a post-war lesbian subculture A vibrant lesbian bar culture emerged alongside gay male subcultures in London and other British towns and cities in the years before the Second World War and played an important role in the development of collective lesbian identities in the post-war period. However, while gay male subcultures have become the focus of considerable scholarly attention in recent years, no comparable work has examined the significance of commercial subcultures in histories of female homosexuality in the UK

in Tomboys and bachelor girls
Theorising the Cybergothic

This article theorizes the transgressive faculties of cyberspace‘s Gothic labyrinth, arguing that it is haunted by the ghost of material/information dualism. This ghost is embodied in cybergoth subculture: while cybergothic music creates a gateway to the borderland between biological and virtual realities, dancing enables cybergoths to transgress the boundaries between the two.

Gothic Studies

Whilst the focus of much criticism has addressed goth as a subculture, considerably less attention has been given to the gendered status of marketing and advertising in subcultural magazines, whilst ‘glossy’ goth magazines have enjoyed little concerted analysis at all. Subcultures are frequently represented by participants and critics as ‘idyllic’ spaces in which the free play of gender functions as distinct from the ‘mainstream’ culture. However, as Brill (2008), Hodkinson (2002) and Spooner (2004) have identified, this is unfortunately an idealistic critical position. Whilst goth men may embrace an ‘androgynous’ appearance, goth women frequently espouse a look which has much in common with traditional feminine values. Slippages between subcultural marketing and mainstream advertising are frequent and often neotraditional in their message regarding masculinity and femininity. In using critiques of postfeminism alongside subcultural theory, I seek to reevaluate how gender functions in these publications. By close inspection of scene representations of ‘goth’ in the twenty-first-century through magazines such as Gothic Beauty (US), Unscene and Devolution (UK), as well as interviews with participants, I argue women’s goth fashion, sexuality and body image often (but not exclusively) represent a hyperfemininity which draws from conventional ideas of womanhood.

Gothic Studies
Notes on the Repertoire

The Gothic or “Goth” subculture emerged from Britains punk scene during the early 1980s. The music associated with the movement showed a sophisticated handling of themes and aesthetics associated with Gothicism, proving that the Goth adjective was more than just a fanciful label given to the bands by the music industry and the popular press. In order to gain a greater understanding of what is genuinely Gothic about this body of music, this study investigates Goth from a musicological perspective exploring specific techniques that were used by the artists, and examining the reasons why Gothicism appealed to many British youths during the Thatcher-era.

Gothic Studies

This article reviews the exhibition _Gothic: Dark Glamour_, held at the Fashion Institute of Technology, New York, September 5 2008 – February 21 2009. It also considers the eponymous volume published alongside the exhibition by Valerie Steele and Jennifer Park. The exhibition was the first of international significance to identify and explore the influence of Gothic on contemporary fashion by both major label designers and small subcultural producers. The article hails the exhibition as a landmark event and investigates the various Gothic/fashion narratives it,puts forward, including veiling motifs, subcultural style, grotesque and perverse bodies, and the prevalence of British and Japanese design. The article concludes that the exhibition marks a moment in the glamorisation of the Gothic, in which it moves from being a minority to a mainstream interest.

Gothic Studies
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Punk, politics and resistance

The Subcultures Network is a cross-disciplinary research network for scholars and students interested in the relationship between subcultures (in all their forms) and wider processes of social, cultural and political change. Bringing together theoretical analyses, empirical studies and methodological discussions, the network is designed to explore the relationships between subcultures and their historical context, and the place of subcultures within patterns of cultural and political change. This book is very much a product of the Network's brief and emerged, in large part, from the inaugural symposium held at London Metropolitan University in September 2011. The book is divided into three parts, each with a broadly defined theme. The first of these relates to punk and identity, particularly with regard to gender, class, age and race. The second part looks at punk's relationship to locality and space. In particular, it deals with two overlapping processes. First, the ways in which punk's transmission allowed for diverse interpretation and utilisation of the cultural form beyond local, regional and national boundaries. Second, the extent to which punk's aesthetic and expression was shaped by, inspired and reflected the environments in which its protagonists lived. The third and final part concentrates on communication and reception. From within the culture, the language of punk is brought under discursive analysis by Melani Schröter, who looks at the critiques of 'normality' contained within the lyrics of German punk bands from the late 1970s through to the present day.