Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 58 items for :

  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Suriname and the Netherlands, 1863– 1890
Stephen Snelders

19 5 Transformations and discussion: Suriname and the Netherlands, 1863–​1890 After the emancipation of the slaves in 1863 in Suriname, the legacy of leprosy control and fear of the disease in the slave society continued to affect leprosy management until the end of direct Dutch rule in 1950. This situation continued despite the profound changes that slowly turned the colony into a ‘modern’ colonial state. These changes were related to the transition of the plantation economy to twentieth-​ century late colonial capitalism in which large-​ scale agriculture

in Leprosy and colonialism
Stephen Snelders

16 7 Developing modern leprosy politics, 1900–​1950 By 1900, the leprosy asylum system in Suriname was reorganized and adapted to both the modern humanitarian and medical demands of the time and the new accommodation between the colonial state and dominant religious groups. Attention could now turn to another essential and long-​postponed reform: the legal framework and execution of the policy of compulsory segregation. Since the international leprosy conference in Berlin in 1897, the international medical and colonial world had been catching up with the

in Leprosy and colonialism
The Batavia leprosy asylum in the age of slavery
Stephen Snelders

93 4 ‘Battleground in the jungle’: the Batavia leprosy asylum in the age of slavery Leprosy sufferers detected under the ‘Great Confinement’ policies, and particularly those who were slaves, were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. By segregating them from the outside world, the perceived threat of a potential spread of their infection to the slave society, higher social groups, and even the Netherlands, was controlled. The geographically isolated leprosy asylum in the Suriname colony performed an essential role in colonial society. The asylum also established

in Leprosy and colonialism
Abstract only
Stephen Snelders

leprosy had ceased to be endemic across most of Europe by the early modern period, in the mid-​eighteenth century Europeans encountered a disease they identified as leprosy in a completely new setting in another part of the globe among people of colour in Caribbean plantation colonies. From approximately 1750 onwards, leprosy or ‘boasie’ was seen by the Dutch rulers and Dutch colonial medicinal professionals in Suriname (the Dutch part of Guiana on the northern coast of South America), as an important danger to the slave population’s health, public hygiene, and colonial

in Leprosy and colonialism
Stephen Snelders

21 1 The making of a colonial disease in the eighteenth century On 19 August 1755, the Swedish botanist Daniel Rolander was exploring plants and wildlife near a coffee plantation on the banks of the Perica river in Suriname when he came across a horrendous sight. He wrote the following in his journal: [We] passed a few sylvan huts of blacks, where some sick unfortunates addressed us from afar, warning us not to approach any closer or enter their huts, because they said they were suffering from a contagious disease called ‘boise’ [boasie or boassie]. This

in Leprosy and colonialism
Stephen Snelders

43 2 A policy of ‘Great Confinement’, 1815–​1863 Michel Foucault used the concept of ‘Great Confinement’ in Madness and Civilization to designate the confinement of ‘madmen’ in seventeenth-​century Paris in ‘enormous houses’. These houses, he claimed, were not medical establishments; rather they were ‘an instance of order, of the monarchical and bourgeois order being organized in France during this period’. According to Foucault, ‘More than one out of every 100 inhabitants of the city of Paris found themselves confined there.’1 In Suriname, the exclusion of

in Leprosy and colonialism
Stephen Snelders

the modern asylum was portrayed as a key instrument of colonial rulers’ attempts to turn colonial subjects into modern citizens. In the last decade, this image changed again. Historians have developed more nuanced images, and thus they highlight asylums as complex microcosms where the sufferers had agency and everyday life was continuously renegotiated.2 This chapter explores these complex microcosms of the modern leprosy asylums in Suriname. In the decidedly unmodern Batavia asylum of the nineteenth century, Christian missionaries had already been involved in

in Leprosy and colonialism
Stephen Snelders

about health and disease in the hope of gaining medical knowledge that would be useful for survival in tropical climates. Faced with a continued belief in treef and other folk beliefs among the large majority of the population, practitioners of Dutch colonial medicine investigated these local beliefs. In line with its own historical tradition, that of the adventurers of Dutch medicine overseas, Dutch colonial medicine in Suriname was primarily concerned with possible practical implications of folk beliefs and practices when translated within its own scientific

in Leprosy and colonialism
Abstract only
Stephen Snelders

a horror of unlimited content, flow and exchange –​or really the horror of contagion, miscegenation and unbanded life. Hygiene requires protective barriers.’1 The modern history of leprosy cannot be understood without exploring this production of Others, which permeated colonial medicine in eighteenth-​century Dutch Suriname and the Caribbean. Leprosy, as framed by Schilling and his contemporaries, was a disease of the Other, which had orginated in Africa through sloth, dirt, and lasciviousness, and had been transported in the bodies of the slaves to the New World

in Leprosy and colonialism