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Arthur Holmer
Håkan Lundström

There are several ethnic groups in Taiwan belonging to the Austronesian language family. Their musical traditions are characterized by various forms of canon performances, which are often polyphonic. There is a high degree of improvisation, and the main performer will be followed by the rest of the participants when they recognize the words or when there are recurring refrains. Vocables – or non-lexical words – are very common. They may occur in combination with lexical words, but entire performances may be

in In the borderland between song and speech
Vivienne Westbrook

In 1611 the King James Bible was printed with minimal annotations, as requested by King James. It was another of his attempts at political and religious reconciliation. Smaller, more affordable, versions quickly followed that competed with the highly popular and copiously annotated Bibles based on the 1560 Geneva version by the Marian exiles. By the nineteenth century the King James Bible had become very popular and innumerable editions were published, often with emendations, long prefaces, illustrations and, most importantly, copious annotations. Annotated King James Bibles appeared to offer the best of both the Reformation Geneva and King James Bible in a Victorian context, but they also reignited old controversies about the use and abuse of paratext. Amid the numerous competing versions stood a group of Victorian scholars, theologians and translators, who understood the need to reclaim the King James Bible through its Reformation heritage; they monumentalized it.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library

Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

Abstract only
Bryan Fanning

. The harder one looked at particular cases the more disparate these ‘tigers’ appeared to become and the greater the differences how and why particular countries achieved their economic success seemed to be. Yet, the original four East Asian ‘tigers’ shared some core economic characteristics. Each had maintained average annual economic growth rates of more than 8 per cent from the 1960s until the 1990s.2 Between 1960 and 1990 Taiwan’s GDP rose by an average of 9.3 per cent per annum. Such growth rates were very high compared to European averages of 2 per cent across

in Irish adventures in nation-building
The location of Koreans and Taiwanese in the imperial order
Barbara J. Brooks

citizenship in the Japanese empire is quite striking. Recent scholarship has shattered the myth of pre-war Japan as a ‘homogeneous’ nation, pointing in particular to Japan’s internal colonisations of the Ainu and the Okinawans, processes that preceded the acquisition of the formal colonies of Taiwan in 1895 and Korea in 1910. 2 While issues of citizenship for people moving between both ‘internal’ and external colonies and the Japanese metropole were also complex, after 1895 Japan’s status as a Great Power with regard to China also opened up

in New frontiers
Fabian Graham

, it is probable that Singapore’s Tua Di Ya Pek tradition bore a significant influence on the development of the Underworld tradition in the southern half of peninsular Malaysia prior to Anxi’s later involvement. Self-perpetuating technologies of religious synthesis: Singapore, Malaysia and Taiwan Returning then to technologies of religious synthesis, the autonomous development of the two Underworld traditions following Singapore’s independence in 1965 accounts for the deviations between them brought about by two

in Voices from the Underworld
(eco)feminist interpellations of Chineseness in the work of Yuk King Tan, Cao Fei, and Wu Mali
Jane Chin Davidson

environmental and labor issues in the last decade or so have contributed to a dialectical materialism for the current conditions of global capitalism. The cycle of economic boom characterized by the ‘made in China’ trope in the twenty-first century, emerging successively after the ‘made in Taiwan’ label of the twentieth-century, has accelerated the conditions of environmental crisis. Situated in the circuit of multi-national trade, moving rapidly since the 1990s, Tan, Cao, and Wu’s subjects expose the ways in which environmental concerns are explicitly connected to the

in Staging art and Chineseness
Setting a baseline of comparison
Fabian Graham

operates as a weapon to control and capture souls, and on the material plane provides a physical link between the human world and the Underworld. In his left hand he wields his demon-summoning plaque in a martial posture, usually at waist height. Tua Ya Pek is thought of as ‘first’ or ‘eldest’ brother 5 and has additional names and titles. These include his human name Xie Bian; Xie Jiangjun, meaning ‘General Xie’; Bai Wuchang, meaning ‘White Impermanence’; and, in Taiwan, Qi Ye, meaning ‘Seventh Uncle’. In contrast, Di Ya Pek is portrayed as

in Voices from the Underworld
Raj Chari
John Hogan
Gary Murphy
, and
Michele Crepaz

Introduction A series of democratic states across the world implemented lobbying legislation in the first decade of the 2000s – Lithuania, Poland, Taiwan, Australia, France and Israel – pointing to the increasing zeal with which states throughout the world regulated lobbying after the original four pioneers in the 1990s. In this chapter, we turn to discussion of developments in each of these states, following a similar structure as seen in Chapter 2 : the countries’ history and structure of government; the nature of lobbying; and the main aspects of the

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)
The Tokugawa, the Zheng maritime network, and the Dutch East India Company
Adam Clulow
Xing Hang

8 Restraining violence on the seas: the Tokugawa, the Zheng maritime network, and the Dutch East India Company Adam Clulow and Xing Hang In 1665, the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC) called in its fleet. Intended to strike back against the sprawling Zheng maritime network, which had successfully evicted the Dutch from their colony on Taiwan, the fleet had been sent to restore the Company’s damaged prestige in the region while netting valuable goods. Instead, the governor-general had been forced to declare that all Zheng

in A global history of early modern violence