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Film Music, Time and Bernard Herrmann
David Butler

The tendency in most writing on the temporal properties of film music has been to note music‘s ability to establish, quickly and efficiently, a films historical setting. Although acknowledging this important function, this paper seeks to explore a wider range of temporal properties fulfilled by film music. Three aspects of musics temporality are discussed: anachronism (whereby choices of anachronistic music can provide the spectator with ways of making sense of a films subtext or its characters’ state of mind), navigation (the ability of music to help the spectator understand where and when they are in a films narrative) and expansion (musics ability to expand our experience of film time). The paper focuses on Bernard Herrmann, and his score for Taxi Driver (1976), and argues that Herrmann was particularly sensitive to the temporal possibilities of film music.

Film Studies
Jules B. Farber

Rather than write a classic biography of James Baldwin in the last cycle of his life—from his arrival in 1970 as a black stranger in the all-white medieval village of Saint-Paul, until his death there in 1987—I sought to discover the author through the eyes of people who knew him in this period. With this optic, I sought a wide variety of people who were in some way part of his life there: friends, lovers, barmen, writers, artists, taxi drivers, his doctors and others who retained memories of their encounters with Baldwin on all levels. Besides the many locals, contact was made with a number of Baldwin’s further afield cultural figures including Maya Angelou, Harry Belafonte, Sidney Poitier, Angela Davis, Bill Wyman, and others. There were more than seventy interviews in person in places as distant as Paris, New York or Istanbul and by telephone spread over four years during the preparatory research and writing of the manuscript. Many of the recollections centred on “at home with Jimmy” or dining at his “Welcome Table.”

James Baldwin Review
Mark Maguire and Fiona Murphy

can do is to develop a strong mind: don’t allow yourself to be pulled down; don’t allow yourself to be discouraged. Telling yourself that you should expect this is not easy. Within ourselves we are trying to find an excuse for them, trying to justify their ill-treatment of us. These are the excuses: ‘They never went out of this country, never met with this kind of intrusion of foreigners, so just give them some time and they will get used to it.’ [. . .] It is not everyone that can take this, find the strength, or try to answer this, so many black taxi drivers come

in Integration in Ireland
Fiona Murphy and Ulrike M. Vieten

ranks in Ireland's towns and cities loomed large in the media. 19 In 2000, the Irish taxi industry was deregulated in order to facilitate open competition for fares and this greatly contributed to acrimony on the taxi ranks between full-time and part-time drivers, and ultimately engendered hostility towards migrant taxi drivers. 20 We (Maguire and Murphy) conducted very close ethnographic research on taxi ranks in Dublin, Drogheda and Dundalk at a time when, particularly in Dundalk and Drogheda, African taxi drivers had become the target of violent racist abuse

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
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Peter Kalu

, sometimes treacherous ladder to economic first base for immigrants, especially those of shaky status, the down on their luck, the can’t make ends meet, the almost homeless. The entry point used to be taxi drivers, but now taxi drivers take their cars to the car wash, making the car washers the subaltern’s subaltern. The new guy who is hosing the car bonnet down has a cigarette in his mouth, boss-like among all this water. I like his style. I imagine he has a Scarface poster on his bedsit wall and plans to become somebody in this New World. Mainly they scurry. With buckets

in Manchester
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Mary Gilmartin

range of cities, the private taxi industry has become a means to self-employment for migrant men in particular. Entry costs to the industry are generally low, regulation of hours worked is often lax and the work offers upfront and often cash payments. Yet, migrant and ethnic minority men who work as taxi drivers in Ireland may experience hostility, discrimination and abuse: in Dublin, I have heard stories about taxi ranks where they are Work 73 not welcome and customers who refuse to get into their taxis. Other taxi drivers festoon their cars with markers of Irish

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
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Mark Maguire and Fiona Murphy

’s and inspiring teachers and parents such as Bunmi occur in a space characterised by government-at-a-distance. Throughout this book, then, we have described integration on the ground, within everyday lives. Though it was not in the original frame of our research project, we constantly ran up against the ramifications of neo-liberal government within people’s lives. Taxi drivers railed against what they perceived as ‘dehumanising’ government policy. School teachers and parents worried about the weakness of official interculturalism as set against their day

in Integration in Ireland
How migrants negotiate racially stratifying systems
Ebun Joseph

lower than their highest academic qualifications. Marking time – nowhere to grow Now consider the following story to help you understand and give context to the fourth experience in this framework, which is the Marking time experience. Setting: John was at the back of a taxi with a Black African driver and he immediately picked up his conversation about migrant workers. John: You don’t have to answer, but I am curious about how you chose taxi driving. African taxi driver: Oh it’s simple. It was either that or be on social welfare. I am Nigerian. I used to be a

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Author: Ebun Joseph

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

Dimitris Dalakoglou

weeks until it was picked up for scrap metal by a local business owned by a Roma family. Another common motif in these stories is that of car accidents being caused by supernatural beings. Some stories describe the appearance of MUP_Dalakoglou_Printer.indd 84 17/01/2017 15:46 Fear of the road and the accident of postsocialism 85 a ­Christian Orthodox priest or a Muslim dervish in the middle of the road, causing an accident, or conversely saving the life of the people involved. A Bektashi taxi driver, who used to keep excerpts of the Holy Koran hanging from the

in The road