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Adapting classical myth as Gothic romance
I.Q. Hunter

According to its director, Terence Fisher, The Gorgon (1964) was not a horror film at all, but a romantic fairy tale and ‘frustrated love story’ (Ringel, 1975a : 24). Although the film is set in Hammer’s usual stylised middle Europe, the Gorgon herself derives not from Gothic literature, like Dracula and Frankenstein’s monster, but from classical mythology – unfamiliar

in Monstrous adaptations
Generic and thematic mutations in horror film
Editors: Richard J. Hand and Jay McRoy

From its earliest days, horror film has turned to examples of the horror genre in fiction, such as the Victorian Gothic, for source material. The horror film has continually responded to cultural pressures and ideological processes that resulted in new, mutated forms of the genre. Adaptation in horror cinema is a useful point of departure for articulating numerous socio-cultural trends. Adaptation for the purposes of survival proves the impetus for many horror movie monsters. This book engages generic and thematic adaptations in horror cinema from a wide range of aesthetic, cultural, political and theoretical perspectives. These diverse approaches further evidence the horror genre's obsession with corporeal transformation and narratological re-articulation. Many horror films such as Thomas Edison's Frankenstein, John S. Robertson's Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, David Cronenberg'sVideodrome, Abel Ferrara's Body Snatchers, and Terence Fisher's The Gorgon are discussed in the book. The book sheds welcome light upon some of the more neglected horror films of cinema's first century, and interrogates the myriad alterations and re-envisionings filmmakers must negotiate as they transport tales of terror between very different modes of artistic expression. It extends the volume's examination of adaptation as both an aesthetic process and a thematic preoccupation by revealing the practice of self-reflexivity and addresses the remake as adaptation. The book analyses the visual anarchy of avant-garde works, deploys the psychoanalytic film theory to interpret how science and technology impact societal secularisation, and explores the experimental extremes of adaptation in horror film.

Peter Hutchings

this perception of him inasmuch as they were all horror-related in some form or other. This was most obviously the case for the six remaining films at Hammer, all of which were gothics – The Gorgon (1964), Dracula – Prince of Darkness (1966), Frankenstein Created Woman (1967), The Devil Rides Out (1968), Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed (1969) and Frankenstein and the Monster from Hell (1974); and, as we will see

in Terence Fisher
Stephen Orgel

’ shield (By which, my face aversed, in open field I slew the Gorgon) for an empty name. When Virtue cut off Terror, he gat Fame. And if when Fame was gotten Terror died, What black Erinyes or more hellish pride Durst arm these hags now she is grown and great, To think they could her glories once defeat: I was her parent and I am her

in Spectacular Performances
Rowland Wymer

by his dumb manservant Jerusaleme, we move back in time to see Caravaggio purchase Jerusaleme, then a little boy of about six, from his peasant grandmother, while his mother looks on and weeps. On their return to Caravaggio’s studio, we see the first of the many paintings which will be represented during the film – the severed snake-haired head of the Gorgon Medusa. The little boy grimaces at it, then picks up the shield on

in Derek Jarman
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Malcolm Chase

this country’, declared John Wade in the influential post-war weekly The Gorgon, and ‘it is by trading in the blood and bones of the journeymen and Chase 00_Tonra 01 22/01/2013 11:03 Page 5 Introduction labourers of England, that our merchants have derived their riches, and the country its glory and importance’.16 In April 1819 Wade had given up The Gorgon to begin an ambitious partwork, The Black Book, or, Corruption Unmasked!!! Upon its completion in February 1820, he dedicated it ‘to the Working, the Agricultural, the Commercial, and Manufacturing Classes of

in 1820
An introduction
Richard J. Hand and Jay McRoy

Fisher’s The Gorgon (1964) as a meditation upon how science and technology impact societal secularisation. Similarly, by exploring the experimental extremes of adaptation in horror film, Murray Pomerance’s ‘Marion Crane Dies Twice’ reflects critically upon visionary director Gus Van Sant’s daring and controversial remake of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960). Finally, the five chapters that bring this

in Monstrous adaptations
Sarah Cooper

associated with the Gorgon’s gaze (as French historian Jean-Pierre Vernant explains to schoolchildren in episode 9): the Gorgon is a reflection of what her victims will become as her murderous glance petrifies them. (The Gorgon emerges more positively elsewhere, as we are told that music was born of her cry, which Athena mistook for that of an owl.) The series offers another view of the passage from flesh to stone, however, through

in Chris Marker
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The monstrous feminine as femme animale
Barbara Creed

adventurers who failed to answer her riddle were eaten whole. The gorgons, whose name meant ‘dreadful’ in Greek, were winged women with hair made of living snakes; they could turn men to stone with their deadly stare. The lamia was a monster who devoured children; in some versions she possessed a serpent’s tail which extended from her waist. Harpies were hideous, winged bird-women. The sirens were bird

in She-wolf
Forbidden Planet, Frankenstein, and the atomic age
Dennis R. Perry

Buchanan calls ‘random accidents of critical attention’. Hence, adaptation theory applied to Frankenstein becomes a kind of monster itself. Just as Altair’s forty-mile power grid, linking 9,200 thermonuclear reactors, continues to operate despite the long absence of the Krell, so Frankenstein adaptations have become a pop-culture monster that continues to power multitudes of additional adaptations. As Morbius shows Adams and Ostrow the Krell power grid, he warns them to look at it only through the nearby mirror: ‘No one can look in the face of the Gorgon and live

in Adapting Frankenstein