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Kevern Verney

. When African American history began to command more serious attention in the mid-1960s, the generation of historians who, as young adults, had had direct personal experience of the Great Depression and the Second World War began to reach the age of retirement. The younger members of the profession who replaced them had had a different life perspective. Their formative years had been shaped by the Cold War, the conflict in Vietnam, and the rise of Martin Luther King and the black Civil Rights Movement within the United States. The labour historian Bruce Nelson thus

in The Debate on Black Civil Rights in America
Nicola Ginsburgh

Giovanni Arrighi has argued, because white wage workers’ ‘settlement was a consequence of , and did not precede, capitalist development in the colony’. 7 While there is some important work on poor whiteism in Southern Rhodesia, the role of white fears of destitution and experiences of poverty to the process of race-making has been overlooked. 8 Under the conditions of the Great Depression, the central tenets of white worker identity outlined in Chapter 1 had to be reworked. The first half of this chapter probes why white labour organisations reacted to the Great

in Class, work and whiteness
Author: Helen Boak

The Weimar Republic, with it fourteen years of turbulent political, economic, social and cultural change, has attracted significant attention from historians primarily because they are seeking to explain the Nazis' accession to power in 1933. This book explores the opportunities and possibilities that the Weimar Republic offered women and presents a comprehensive survey of women in the economy, politics and society of the Weimar Republic. The Republic was a post-war society, and hence, the book offers an understanding of the significant impact that the First World War had on women and their roles in the Weimar Republic. The book also explores to what extent the Weimar Republic was 'an open space of multiple developmental opportunities' for women and considers the changes in women's roles, status and behavior during the Republic. It discusses women's participation in Weimar politics, as voters, elected representatives, members of political parties and targets of their propaganda, and as political activists outside the parliamentary arena. The book investigates the impact, if any, on women's employment of the two major economic crises of the Republic, the hyperinflation of 1922-23 and the Depression in the early 1930s. It describes the woman's role within the family, primarily as wife and mother, the impact of the changes in family and population policy and attitudes towards female sexuality. The Weimar Republic also witnessed significant changes in women's lives outside the home as they accessed the public realm to pursue a variety of interests.

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Keynes, consumer rights and the new thrifty consumers
Alison Hulme

79 6 Consumer thrift: Keynes, consumer rights and the new thrifty consumers The Great Depression, thrift and consumer rights The previous chapter examined how thrift, as manifested through practices of consuming less, making do, or simply not consuming, was galvanised as a practice to aid the economic, and to some extent ideological, survival of nations. In contrast, this chapter shows how history very quickly came to employ a contrasting logic when it came to promoting action on the part of citizens. It explores an opposite form of thrift –​that of being a

in A brief history of thrift
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The end of campaigning, 1930s–1961
Lea M. Williams

in the anti-tuberculosis, suffrage, and anti-opium campaigns for two decades. At times, her fatigue with being vigilant and outspoken in support of these causes made her want to retire from the constant struggle to improve the world around her. Ultimately, circumstances external to her would slow down her days of intense campaigning. The Great Depression curtailed her income and that of Emily Chadbourne, forcing them to return to the United States, where there was much less interest in the anti-opium campaign now that

in Ellen N. La Motte
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Pagnol as auteur
Brett Bowles

France’s difficult transition to modernity in the context of the Great Depression: the persistence of regional identity among increasingly strong national cohesion; the erasure of rural culture by urbanisation; generational conflict between parents who stress familial duty and children who seek self-fulfilment and independence; changes in traditional gender roles, particularly with regard to sexuality, and the consequences of

in Marcel Pagnol
Factory landscapes, leisure and the model employee
Helena Chance

on their promotion of horticulture between the wars,87 the role of the factory itself and its landscape department in mentoring and promoting civic improvement has not been ­sufficiently acknowledged.88 Another important contribution of factory grounds to social policy and one that will form the subject of future research, is their role in food production in times of economic depression and in wartime. During the Great Depression in America, many companies made land available for ‘community gardens’ where employees or the unemployed could grow vegetables. The B. F

in The factory in a garden
Gavin Wilk

became a major labour leader.15 As the Great Depression continued to affect communities, certain individuals adopted a transient lifestyle in order to secure employment. Illegally riding freight trains enabled these job seekers to travel far distances for free.16 In Cleveland, Achill Island IRA veteran Joseph Moran, who arrived in the US in 1923, according to his niece left his family and friends in the early 1930s and became a hobo. After travelling to San Francisco Moran’s health rapidly deteriorated and, in 1933, he died in one of the city’s homeless shelters

in Transatlantic defiance
Singing the politics of hitchhiking
Jonathan Purkis

the Old Crow Medicine Show's enchanting ‘Wagon wheel’, or reflections on changing perspectives as with Sheryl Crow's ‘Everyday is a winding road’. This eight-minute surreal and edgy blend of folk song and manic orchestration packs plenty of social commentary in its primal evocations. Written in 1941 by American composer Harry Partch and subtitled ‘Eight hitchhiker inscriptions from a highway railing at Barstow, California’, the piece was designed to capture the inner world of someone hitchhiking on a winter day during the Great Depression of the

in Driving with strangers
American liberalism from the New Deal to the Cold War
Andrew Hartman

The calamity of the Great Depression left millions of Americans wounded. Countless Americans discovered the name for the system that was to blame for their troubles: capitalism . Many also learned the name of the theorist who had prophesized capitalism’s demise: Karl Marx . For most left-wingers of the early 1930s, Marx became the key to answering some of the most pressing questions of the time. Was capitalism on the verge of ultimate collapse? Were the American people up to the task of socialist revolution? No matter where someone stood on these questions, almost

in Marxism and America