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Jack Holland

knowing no earthly bounds. This immense relative material capability, however, is but one reason to study the US. America’s relationship with the screen – big and small – is especially noteworthy for three further and vital reasons. First, the US is a particularly and potentially uniquely scripted nation-state. In lieu of the usual ties that bind populations together in a mutually agreed upon sense of shared national history, Americans have – far more than most peoples – had to think about, decide upon, and construct themselves as such. All nation-states are imagined

in Fictional television and American Politics
Memories of childrens cinema-going in London before the First World War
Luke McKernan

Before 1906, there were no dedicated venues for the exhibition of film in London. Five years later, cinemas had spread all over the city, and 200,000 people were attending a film show in the city every day. Many in these first cinema audiences were children. Significantly - indeed probably uniquely for the time - cinema was a mass entertainment deliberated aimed at, and priced within the range of, the young. Decades later, some of these children left memoirs (published or unpublished), or were interviewed by oral historians. This body of evidence on the experience of cinema-going before the First World War has been hitherto ignored by film historians. This essay examines this testimony from London audience members, which is constructed around the various stages of the act of going to the cinema. The testimony demonstrates that the experience and the enjoyment of the social space that the cinema provided were at least as important as the entertainment projected on the screen. The early cinema demands greater recognition for its function as a social sphere, and particularly as a welcoming place for children.

Film Studies
Determining the methodology
Olivier Corten and François Dubuisson

workshops have thus been established, each one of which could have been the subject of a book on its own: ‘International law, reality or (science) fiction?’; ‘Wars, force and police operations: which law?’; ‘Justice enters the scene’; and ‘Human rights on the screen’. These titles attest to the diversity of analytical possibilities available. As it was suggested earlier, the objective here is not to (try to) exhaust the subject, but rather to attempt to explore what is still, to a very large extent, unchartered waters. In this sense, we have chosen to encourage the

in Cinematic perspectives on international law
Spaces of revolution
Author: Carl Lavery

Jean Genet has long been regarded as one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century. Since the publication of Jean-Paul Sartre's existential biography Saint Genet: Actor and Martyr in 1952, his writing has attracted the attention of leading French thinkers and philosophers. In the UK and US, his work has played a major role in the development of queer and feminist studies, where his representation of sexuality and gender continues to provoke controversy. This book aims to argue for Genet's influence once again, but it does so by focusing uniquely on the politics of his late theatre. The first part of the book explores the relationship between politics and aesthetics in Genet's theatre and political writing in the period 1955 to 1986. The second part focuses on the spatial politics of The Balcony, The Blacks and The Screens by historicising them within the processes of modernisation and decolonisation in France of the 1950s and 1960s. The third part of the book analyses how Genet's radical spatiality works in practice by interviewing key contemporary practitioners, Lluís Pasqual, JoAnne Akalaitis, and Ultz and Excalibah. The rationale behind these interviews is to find a way of merging past and present. The rationale so explores why Genet's late theatre, although firmly rooted within its own political and historical landscape, retains its relevance for practitioners working within different geographical and historical contexts today.

James Bond‘s Serial Heritage
Scott Higgins

Just six years after the last American sound-era serial, Albert Broccoli and Harry Saltzman brought James Bond to the screen, launching the longest-lived and most influential film series of the post-studio era. This article considers how the first Bond films adapted the regular imperilments,and operational aesthetics of sound-serials. Early Bond films benefitted from a field of expectations, viewing strategies and conventions planted by the over 200 B-grade chapter-plays produced between 1930 and 1956. Recourse to these serial strategies conferred tactile immediacy and ludic clarity to the films, and facilitated engagement with the Bond beyond the cinema.

Film Studies
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

, as well as what watching such films was like in the 1920s. In general, images function with more immediacy and affective persuasion than words do. The screen did not only offer a contemplative spectacle. Indeed, film-viewing was itself an immersive experience through the ‘magical immediacy’ of cinema technology ( Horne, 2012 : 15). Even more than today, it offered a privileged window to other parts of the world. And the publics who were attracted to the humanitarian screenings came in anticipation of seeing pain and care. Thus, animated pictures acted as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Four Conversations with Canadian Communications Officers
Dominique Marshall

‘emerging trends in social and digital spaces were shaping the ways that Canadians were responding to disaster and interacting with the organizations that could help them’ ( CRC, 2012 ; 2018a : 2). At the time, the four agencies all worried that public trust in their work could be weakened by the multiplication of channels of communications, the small size of the screens on which their messages were increasingly received, and the reduction of the length of time the public spent to watch their messages. Like the CRC, they embarked on a simplification of their visual image

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

panorama presentation told the story of the Battle of Solferino and, through visual effects, made the ghost of Dunant wander through the museum’s space. Once the presentation was over, the screen parted and opened a view of a sculpture of Dunant writing ‘A Memory of Solferino’. In another area the display showcased a six million card-index compiled by the International Prisoners of War Agency (IPWA). There was also a 20-screen video wall that transmitted satellite pictures of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The battle of The Screens
Carl Lavery

It was a question of inflaming you, not teaching you. (Genet, 2003: 83) Introduction In contrast to the previous two chapters which investigated The Balcony and The Blacks by contextualising them historically, this chapter explores The Screens , Genet’s last play, as a historical event in and by itself. The focus here is on mapping, through a study of newspaper reviews, audience responses and political reaction, the actual effects generated by Roger Blin’s production of the play at the Odéon-Théâtre de France in April and May 1966. As I argue

in The politics of Jean Genet’s late theatre
Carl Lavery

JoAnne Akalaitis is a US theatre director and founder of the influential avant-garde theatre company Mabou Mines. In this interview, I talk to her about her two widely praised productions of Genet’s work, The Balcony with the American Repertory Theatre in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1985–86, and The Screens at the Tyrone Guthrie Theatre, Minneapolis in 1989–90. CARL LAVERY: The first question I want to ask you is how did you get into Genet? JOANNE AKALAITIS: I happened to catch a production of The Maids , and it just amazed me. I thought it was

in The politics of Jean Genet’s late theatre