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What rough beast?
Series: Irish Society

This book explores the issue of a collective representation of Ireland after the sudden death of the 'Celtic Tiger' and introduces the aesthetic idea that runs throughout. The focus is on the idea articulated by W. B. Yeats in his famous poem 'The Second Coming'. The book also explores the symbolic order and imaginative structure, the meanings and values associated with house and home, the haunted houses of Ireland's 'ghost estates' and the fiscal and moral foundations of the collective household. It examines the sophisticated financial instruments derived from mortgage-backed securities that were a lynchpin of global financialization and the epicentre of the crash, the question of the fiscal and moral foundations of the collective household of Europe. A story about fundamental values and principles of fairness and justice is discussed, in particular, the contemporary conflict that reiterates the ancient Irish mythic story of the Tain. The book suggests correspondences between Plato's Republic and the Irish republic in the deformations and devolution of democracy into tyranny. It traces a red thread from the predicament of the ancient Athenians to contemporary Ireland in terms of the need to govern pleonexia, appetites without limits. The political and economic policies and practices of Irish development, the designation of Ireland's 'tax free zones', are also discussed. Finally, the ideal type of person who has been emerging under the auspices of the neoliberal revolution is imagined.

Monsters of post-Celtic Tiger Ireland
Kieran Keohane and Carmen Kuhling

), recurrence is represented in ‘The Second Coming’ by the figure of the spiral gyre: recurring cycles of history marked by moments of dissolution of order, liminality and the imposition of a new order. Modernity sees the acceleration, intensification and apotheosis of cycles of historical recurrence. ‘What rough beast’, Yeats asks, emerges from this civilization at the moment of its apotheosis and simultaneous decadence (Yeats 1920a, pp. 10–11)? ‘We   The voyage of Ulysses in Homer is re lived in the mundane everyday world of his modern hero Leopold Bloom, and in Finnegans

in From prosperity to austerity
Tortured Souls and Mister B. Gone’s new myths of the flesh
Xavier Aldana Reyes

corpses, found in various states of amputation. A monster-maker, Talisac has managed to fashion himself an external, semi-translucent womb, out of which grows the Mongroid. The latter is an aberration of creation resembling a gigantic mouth, a crab homunculus made of his DNA, and who is referred to as the ‘infant of the Second Coming’. 26 But if these designs do not sound dark

in Clive Barker
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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

Der Blaue Reiter and its legacies
Author: Dorothy Price

This book presents new research on the histories and legacies of the German Expressionist group, Der Blaue Reiter, the founding force behind modernist abstraction. For the first time Der Blaue Reiter is subjected to a variety of novel inter-disciplinary perspectives, ranging from a philosophical enquiry into its language and visual perception, to analyses of its gender dynamics, its reception at different historical junctures throughout the twentieth century, and its legacies for post-colonial aesthetic practices. The volume offers a new perspective on familiar aspects of Expressionism and abstraction, taking seriously the inheritance of modernism for the twenty-first century in ways that will help to recalibrate the field of Expressionist studies for future scholarship. Der Blaue Reiter still matters, the contributors argue, because the legacies of abstraction are still being debated by artists, writers, philosophers and cultural theorists today.

A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

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The widening gyre
Catherine J. Frieman

One hundred years ago, in the shadow of World War I and the Irish War of Independence, W. B. Yeats wrote his famous poem “The Second Coming.” In this poem, he deploys a variety of natural, biblical, and even archaeological metaphors and images to emphasize the archetypal interwar period feeling that the world was coming undone; that a cusp had been reached; that the horrors just visited had unleashed something new, dynamic, and unquestionably threatening. Among the unformed threats that Yeats feared were slouching towards Bethlehem, we must include the weapons

in An archaeology of innovation
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Cultural credibility in America's Ireland - and Ireland's America
Tara Stubbs

of truth-telling that resounds through Irish writers from Yeats to Friel. In MacNeice’s claim that ‘to attempt scientific truthfulness would be – paradoxically – dishonest’ we hear echoes of Yeats’s apparently ambiguous statement in ‘The Second Coming’ – ‘The best lack all conviction, while the worst / Are full of passionate intensity’15 – with its combined fear of faithlessness and insincerity. Meanwhile MacNeice’s comment ‘In a journal or a personal letter a man writes what he feels at the moment’ anticipates the kinds of qualifications Friel used to excuse his

in American literature and Irish culture, 1910–55
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‘What rough beast?’ Monsters of post-Celtic Tiger Ireland
Kieran Keohane and Carmen Kuhling

represented in ‘The Second Coming’ by the figure of the spiral gyre: recurring cycles of history marked by moments of dissolution of order, liminality and the imposition of a new order. Modernity sees the acceleration, intensification and apotheosis of cycles of historical recurrence. What rough beast, Yeats asks, emerges from this civilization at the moment of its apotheosis and simultaneous decadence, when things fall apart? ‘We are legion’ is the demon’s answer. The rough beast has many countenances: ‘cold, egotistical calculation; the conduct of business without regard

in The domestic, moral and political economies of post-Celtic Tiger Ireland
Genre and temporality in Fox’s Journal
Hilary Hinds

argued, rectilinear temporality was superseded: ‘the past and future were experienced in the present’.35 For Friends, the present was folded into the past of the primitive church, as they lived the experience of the emerging New Testament church, but they were simultaneously internalising and living the future, through the second coming of Christ within each believer. The belief that the second coming of Christ (still in the historical future for other radicals such as Fifth Monarchists and Baptists) was taking place in the present, as it had done in the time of the

in George Fox and early Quaker culture