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For women writers, the decades of the English Civil War were of special importance. This book presents a complex and rewarding poetic culture that is both uniquely women-centred and integrally connected to the male canonical poetry. It brings together extensive selections of poetry by the five most prolific and prominent women poets of the English Civil War: Anne Bradstreet, Hester Pulter, Margaret Cavendish, Katherine Philips, and Lucy Hutchinson. All these five women were attracting new and concerted attention as poets by seventeenth-century women. Bradstreet's poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, and the later volume of Several Poemsincluded revised texts of those poems and several new ones. Each version of the poems spoke more directly on the context of the English Civil War. Pulter's poems construe Broadfield as a place of unwelcome isolation: she describes herself as 'shut up in a country grange', 'tied to one habitation', and 'buried, thus, alive'. Philips's poetry was first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, suggest Philips as a poet writing on matters of political significance. Cavendish's two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. Across poetry and prose, print and manuscript, Hutchinson's writing bears the marks of her fervent hostility to corrupt rulers and her remarkably broad education, adventurous reading habits, and energetic intellect.

Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

arranged according to their groupings in the copy-texts that we have chosen, in order to reflect something of the poems’ complex textual histories. Anne Bradstreet’s poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America (1650), and the later volume of Several Poems (Boston, 1678) included revised texts of those poems, as well as a number of new ones. We have used The Tenth Muse as our copy-text in this edition for all poems that occurred in it, and Several Poems for poems printed only there. We have made this choice in part because the versions of the poems

in Women poets of the English Civil War
Patricia Pender

woman writer who would not, or could not, call herself a poet.1 This chapter reconsiders Bradstreet’s now famous pronouncements of authorial reluctance in her two seventeenthcentury printed publications: The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, published ostensibly without her consent in London in 1650, and Several Poems, published six years after her death, but with material that she had clearly designed for publication, in Boston in 1678. If Bradstreet has traditionally been considered a prime example of the humble, submissive and self-effacing woman poet, this

in Early modern women and the poem
Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

appear to have been taken without her consent to London by her brother-in-law John Woodbridge, who travelled there in 1647; they were published as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America in 1650. Bradstreet’s poems are prefaced in the volume by numerous short prefatory endorsements: the authors of these are a combination of New English and ‘old’ English puritans, attesting to a New England reading community but also inserting her writing into the context of Civil War conflict. A Dialogue between Old England and New, Concerning their Present Troubles, Anno 1642

in Women poets of the English Civil War
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Sappho, Swinburne, and Amy Lowell
Sarah Parker

intertextuality, I have shown how these three poets form a triangular ‘matrix’ of complex cultural cross-influences (Morgan 1993b , 137). In particular, this chapter has demonstrated how Amy Lowell’s response to Sappho is mediated by Swinburne’s earlier versions of theTenth Muse’. As a result of this inter-textual influence, both Swinburne and Lowell connect Sapphic desire to medieval courtly love, figuring

in Algernon Charles Swinburne
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Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

manuscript writing and exchange, but these manuscript-based texts have been far less visible to literary history than the printed tradition. Hester Pulter’s and Lucy Hutchinson’s poems exemplify the extent and depth of women’s poetry in manuscript culture, as do the extensive manuscript-based activities of Katherine Philips. This anthology presents these manuscript poems alongside those that were printed in the volumes of Anne Bradstreet (The Tenth Muse, 1650; Several Poems, 1678), Margaret Cavendish (Poems and Fancies, 1653 and 1664), and Philips (Poems, 1664 and 1667

in Women poets of the English Civil War
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Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

Further reading Anne Bradstreet Gray, Catharine, Women Writers and Public Debate in Seventeenth-Century Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) Hensley, Jeannine (ed.), The Works of Anne Bradstreet, with a foreword by Adrienne Rich (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967) Jed, Stephanie, ‘The Tenth Muse: Gender, Rationality and the Marketing of Knowledge’, in Margo Hendricks and Patricia Parker (eds), Women, ‘Race’, and Writing in the Early Modern Period (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), pp. 195–208 Pender, Patricia

in Women poets of the English Civil War
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Andrew Dix

(2007), The Tenth Muse: Writing about Cinema in the Modernist Period (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Dense and absorbing study of attempts by modernist writers, early in the twentieth century, to uncover the artistic, cultural and political potentials of film. Polan, Dana (2007), Scenes of Instruction: The Beginnings of the U.S. Study of Film (Berkeley: University of California Press). Lucid, scrupulously researched account of disparate early twentieth-century American ventures in the study of film, prior to film studies

in Beginning film studies (second edition)
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Accession, union, nationhood
Christopher Ivic

Scotland, by Re-vniting them into one Great Britain. In two parts: by John Bristol . For a reading of Anne Bradstreet’s The Tenth Muse (1650) within the context of a transatlantic ‘Britishness’, see Christopher Ivic, ‘“Our British Land”: Anne Bradstreet’s Atlantic perspective’, in Simon Mealor and Philip Schwyzer (eds), Archipelagic Identities: Literature and Identity in the Atlantic Archipelago, 1550–1800 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2004), 195–204.

in The subject of Britain, 1603–25
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Richard Marsh and late Victorian journalism
Nick Freeman

nineteenth century, the journalist was becoming increasingly visible in fiction by James, Kipling, and Arthur Machen. He surfaced in poetry such as John Davidson’s Fleet Street Eclogues (1893) and Edwin Arnold’s The Tenth Muse (1895). His more populist and sensational manifestations were mocked regularly in Punch. Journalism and authorship went hand in hand. George Bernard Shaw was more successful as a music and theatre reviewer than he had been as a novelist during the 1880s, and journalism did more than merely keep him afloat until he achieved success as a playwright

in Richard Marsh, popular fiction and literary culture, 1890–1915