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Daisy Connon

Towards a Theory for African Cinema is an English translation of a talk given in French by the Tunisian filmmaker and critic Férid Boughedir (1944–) at a conference on international cinema, which took place in Montreal in 1974. In his presentation Boughedir discusses the vocation of the African filmmaker, who must avoid succumbing to the escapism and entertainment values of Western cinema and instead strive to reflect the contradictions and tensions of the colonised African identity, while promoting a revitalisation of African culture. Drawing on the example of the 1968 film Mandabi (The Money Order) by the Senegalese director Sembène Ousmane, Boughedir conceptualises a form of cinema which resists the influences of both Hollywood and auteur film and awakens viewers, instead of putting them to sleep. Boughedir‘s source text is preceded by a translator‘s introduction, which situates his talk within contemporary film studies.

Film Studies
Black Audio Film Collective and Latin America
Paul Elliott

Sembène, European avant-gardists like Chris Marker and Jean-Luc Godard, and American Independents like Charles Burnett and Haile Gerima. Politically they were influenced by the emerging fields of postcolonial and cultural studies, citing Homi Bhabha, Edward Said and Stuart Hall among the major figures in their intellectual development. In the rich pantheon of influences that shaped Black Audio Film Collective’s work, however, Latin American Third Cinema practitioners and theorists loomed large. In a piece published in the journal Undercut

in British art cinema
Abstract only
Algerian national cinemas
Guy Austin

historical memory is crucial’ (Murphy and Williams 2007 : 15). This imperative resulted in what Teshome Gabriel has called ‘an urgent, activist cinema – in a word, Third Cinema’ (Gabriel 1989a : 63). Throughout the 1960s, Algerian films sought a militant, memorialising form of third cinema. But the results were often monolithic and eventually proved alienating for their domestic audience. The FLN, defining itself as the nation (and funding cinema as the

in Algerian national cinema
Rethinking art, media, and the audio-visual contract
Author: Ming-Yuen S. Ma

There is no soundtrack is a specific yet expansive study of sound tactics deployed in experimental media art today. It analyses how audio and visual elements interact and produce meaning, drawing from works by contemporary media artists ranging from Chantal Akerman, to Nam June Paik, to Tanya Tagaq. It then links these analyses to discussions on silence, voice, noise, listening, the soundscape, and other key ideas in sound studies. In making these connections, the book argues that experimental media art – avant-garde film, video art, performance, installation, and hybrid forms – produces radical and new audio-visual relationships that challenge and destabilize the visually-dominated fields of art history, contemporary art criticism, cinema and media studies, and cultural studies as well as the larger area of the human sciences. This book directly addresses what sound studies scholar Jonathan Sterne calls ‘visual hegemony’. It joins a growing body of interdisciplinary scholarship that is collectively sonifying the study of culture while defying the lack of diversity within the field by focusing on practitioners from transnational and diverse backgrounds. Therefore, the media artists discussed in this book are of interest to scholars and students who are exploring aurality in related disciplines including gender and feminist studies, queer studies, ethnic studies, postcolonial studies, urban studies, environmental analysis, and architecture. As such, There Is No Soundtrack makes meaningful connections between previously disconnected bodies of scholarship to build new, more complex and reverberating frameworks for the study of art, media, and sound.

Guy Austin

, the women in La Bataille d’Alger are practically silent. Their voices are barely heard. Nonetheless, and despite a recent critique of gender representation in the film (Khanna 2008 ), La Bataille d’Alger has been received as a pioneering anti-colonial statement and the epitome of militant ‘third cinema’. It has been claimed that third cinema, in contrast with colonial and Western cinema, achieves an all

in Algerian national cinema
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Representing postcolonial African cinema
David Murphy and Patrick Williams

, African cinema was at the cutting edge of a politically and artistically radical ‘Third Cinema’, which explicitly rejected the capitalist world order of the West (Gabriel 1982 ). In reality, as was argued above, this vision of African cinema was always an excessive generalisation, which occluded the existence of other cinematic trajectories such as the playful, comic vision of the likes of Djibril Diop Mambety and Mustapha

in Postcolonial African cinema
Guy Austin

. Conclusion Teshome Gabriel’s taxonomy of ‘Third World’ cinema includes as the ‘combative phase’ or third cinema, ‘a cinema of mass participation, one enacted by members of communities speaking indigenous languages’, in short a cinema ‘for and by the people’ (Gabriel 1989a : 33). If the cinéma moudjahid of the 1960s and early 1970s falls short of this ideal, then the Berber cinema that finally appeared in

in Algerian national cinema
Abstract only
David Murphy and Patrick Williams

Sembene in particular, were classified as exponents of ‘Third Cinema’. Definitions as to its precise meaning often differed quite significantly from one critic to another but there was a general consensus that ‘Third Cinema’ was different in style and content both from the dominant Hollywood cinema and from (mainly European) auteur cinema. For the influential Ethiopian critic Teshome Gabriel, and for many others

in Postcolonial African cinema
Río Escondido
Dolores Tierney

). 10 Films of the New Latin American cinema in the period 1960–73 were revolutionary and explicitly political, calling for an end to hunger, exploitation, illiteracy and ignorance. Central to one of the movements of New Latin American Cinema, that of ‘Third Cinema’ was the idea that film itself could act as a tool of consciousness-raising about the problems of neoimperialism and

in Emilio Fernández
Abstract only
Andrew Dix

’ cinema. Aesthetically, politically and industrially, it observes protocols of liberationist filmmaking in immiserated, subjugated parts of the globe as these were codified in manifestos such as ‘For an Imperfect Cinema’ (1969) by the Cuban director and screenwriter Julio García Espinosa and ‘Towards a Third Cinema’ (1969) by the Argentine filmmaker-theorists Octavio Getino and Fernando Solanas. Winterbottom’s film largely forgoes high-budget glossiness and thus respects Espinosa’s demand for a kind of aesthetic poverty that echoes the destitution of the people put on

in Beginning film studies (second edition)