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Unsteady foundations?
Author: David Brown

This book examines the underlying foundations on which the European Union's counter-terrorism and police co-operation policies have been built since the inception of the Treaty on European Union, questioning both the effectiveness and legitimacy of the EU's efforts in these two security areas. Given the importance of such developments to the wider credibility of the EU as a security actor, it adopts a more structured analysis of key stages of the implementation process. These include the establishment of objectives, both at the wider level of internal security co-operation and in terms of both counter-terrorism and policing, particularly in relation to the European Police Office, the nature of information exchange and the ‘value added’ by legislative and operational developments at the European level. The book also offers a more accurate appraisal of the official characterisation of the terrorist threat within the EU as a ‘matter of common concern’. In doing so, not only does it raise important questions about the utility of the European level for organising internal security co-operation, but it also provides a more comprehensive assessment of the EU's activities throughout the lifetime of the Third Pillar, placing in a wide and realistic context the EU's reaction to the events of 11 September 2001 and the greater prominence of Islamist terrorism.

Abstract only
David Brown

chronological picture. While there has been a reasonable flurry of research activity in the post-11 September era, this is, at best, a snapshot of the full picture.14 In contrast, this book, when considering the efforts of the EU to effectively implement its counter-terrorist policy, takes as its starting point the 1992 Treaty on European Union (TEU), which established the three ‘pillars’ of the new EU and brought counter terrorism into the formal structures of European integration for the first time, as part of the remit of the Third Pillar, which was dedicated to Justice

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
Legislation, agencies and the implementation gap
David Brown

quantitative and qualitative terms, as appropriate, gives a further indication as to the overall state of the Third Pillar’s internal priorities. Thirdly, it is a useful means by which to consider the state of play with regard to an ever more pressing problem in the JHA field overall, namely the development of an ‘implementation gap’ between stated intentions and legislative reality. This will be done both in terms of individual legislative actions – particularly the development of the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) – and in terms of the overall picture within the Third

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
David Brown

Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU’s Third Pillar, propelled into the limelight by the events of September 11 and maintained by terrorist incidents in Spain and the UK. In the same period, the organisation’s most extensive enlargement, to embrace the eight CEE states, Malta and Cyprus, was undertaken. In fact, the two processes – widening the EU

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
David Brown

7 Looking back, looking forward Although referring to a different area of EU security co-operation, namely the CFSP, Richard Whitman, in concluding that ‘all the bricks are added together, but they are not structured in a way that bears much weight’,1 has raised similar concerns to those highlighted in this volume. In considering in a structured fashion the first fifteen years of internal security co-operation, both within the Third Pillar more widely and more specifically in terms of developments in police co-operation and counter terrorism, it is difficult to

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
David Brown

process, debate has centred on the tactical aspects of objective setting, where there is a degree of disquiet. It is worth briefly sketching out some of the wider debates surrounding both the nature and process by which objectives are established, as this will help place the subsequent analysis of the EU’s objective-setting process within the Third Pillar within a broader context. For example, disagreements have arisen over the most appropriate moment to establish, once and for all, the stated and universally agreed objective of any policy-making process. While this may

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
Ayla Göl

3 Modernity, nationalism and Islamic identity Having suggested a new approach to understanding the foreign policies of transitional states by using FPA and historical sociology, this chapter shows why the study of nationalism is the third pillar that completes the new theoretical framework. Chapter 1 argued that the foreign policies of transitional states reflect their preoccupation with domestic politics – which indicates nation-­state building as an integral part of modernity. Chapter 2 then explained what the transition to modernity meant in Turkish politics

in Turkey facing east
Police co-operation and counter terrorism
David Brown

3 A question of objectives: police co-operation and counter terrorism In Chapter 2, the overarching declared objectives of the Third Pillar – from the confusion of means and ends at Maastricht to the declared but not fully defined ‘Area of Freedom, Security and Justice’ – were placed under the microscope. While the record in terms of both clarifying and prioritising such metapolicy objectives was uninspiring, it is only part of the overall picture. There is a need to complement such an analysis with a similar examination of the megapolicy objectives in the two

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
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England and the defence of British sovereignty
Ben Wellings

Europe, the Anglosphere and, in this case, local neighbourhood. The memory of twentieth century conflict is the ‘third pillar’ on which Anglosphere thinking rests and a major point of intersection between Englishness and Euroscepticism, but one that again occludes England. It positions Anglosphere countries on the side of ‘right’ in the pivotal conflict of the twentieth century against Nazism, totalitarianism and militarism; a conflict remembered as a straightforward contest between good and evil compared to the more complicated memories of conflicts of the Cold War

in English nationalism, Brexit and the Anglosphere
Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.