Each age has used the debate about the English Reformation in its own way and for its own ends. This book is about the changing nature of the debate on the English Reformation, and is a study of Reformation historiography. It focuses the historiography of the Reformation as seen through the eyes of men who were contemporaries of the English Reformation, and examines the work of certain later writers from Thomas Fuller to John Strype. The book discusses the history of the sixteenth-century Reformation as written by modernist professional historians of the later nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. All through the Tudor times the tide of Reformation ebbed and flowed as the monarch willed. The book sets out modern debates concerning the role of Henry VIII, or his ministers, the Reformation and the people of England, and the relative strength of Protestantism or Catholicism. Catholics and Protestants alike openly used the historical past to support their contemporary political arguments. Additionally, the nature of religious identities, and the changes which occurred in the Church of England as a result of the Reformation are also explained. The history of the Reformation in the 1990s and 2000s has to be viewed within the context of research assessment and peer review. The book shows how persistent the threat of postmodernist theory is to the discipline of history, even as leading academic authorities on the Reformation have rejected it out of hand.

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Rediscovering early modern Westminster
J. F. Merritt

Introduction Rediscovering early modern Westminster Westminster is the greatest City in England next London, not onely in Position, but by the Dimensions thereof . . . it filleth as much ground (not to say containeth more reasonable souls) then any City in the Land. But as a proper man seemeth a Dwarfe, when placed next to a Giant; such the infelicity of Westminster, whose due greatness, devoured by the vicinity of London, is insensible in the eyes of the Beholders.1 O wrote Thomas Fuller in 1662. These words were also prophetic of the later study of early

in The social world of early modern Westminster
Rosemary O’Day

forms of worship; the wealth of the Church; the historical forms of Church government. Probably much criticism of Heylyn as an unscrupulous polemicist derives from the fact that his views were so influential. Heylyn’s book appeared in print just seven years after Thomas Fuller’s The Church History of Britain (1655),39 which has recently been described as the first comprehensive Protestant history of the English Church, and must have seemed to be a response to it. Fuller’s work, which was in its turn a reply to the various Catholic detailed versions of English Church

in The Debate on the English Reformation

This book investigates the ways in which the crusades have been observed by historians from the 1090s to the present day. Especial emphasis is placed on the academic after-life of the crusades from the sixteenth to twenty-first centuries. The use of the crusade and its history, by humanists and other contemporary writers, occupied a world of polemic, serving parochial religious, cultural and political functions. Since the Renaissance humanists and Reformation controversialists, one attraction of the crusades had lain in their scope: recruited from all western nations, motivated by apparently transcendent belief systems and fought across three continents. From the perspective of western Europe's engagement with the rest of the globe from the sixteenth century, the crusades provided the only post-classical example to hand of an ideological and military world war. Remarkably, the patterns of analysis of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century have scarcely gone away: empathy; disapproval; relevance; the role of religion; materialist reductionism. Despite the explosion of literary attention, behind the empathetic romanticism of Michaud or the criticism of Mills and Scott, the themes identified by Thomas Fuller, Claude Fleury, David Hume, Edward Gibbon and William Robertson persisted. The idea of the crusades as explicit precursors to modern events, either as features of teleological historical progress or as parallels to modern actions remains potent. The combination of ideology, action, change, European conquest and religious fanaticism acted as a contrast or a comparison with the tone of revolutionary and reactionary politics.

Cheshire on the eve of civil war
Authors: Richard Cust and Peter Lake

This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.

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Anthony Milton

, 1872), II, p. 38; Thomas Carlyle, Historical Sketches (2nd edn, 1898), p. 274. 5 R. Baxter, Church-History of the Government of Bishops and their Councils Abbreviated (1680), sig. a4r. 6 Thomas Fuller, An Appeal of Injured Innocence (1659), iii. p. 33; EV, ii. sig. A3r; Hamon L’Estrange, The Observator Observed (1656), p. 22. 7 N. Tyacke, Anti-Calvinists: the Rise of English Arminianism, c. 1590–1640 (Oxford, 1987), chapter 8; A. Foster, ‘Church policies in the 1630s’ in R. Cust and A. Hughes (eds), Conflict in early Stuart England (1989); K. C. Fincham, ‘The

in Laudian and royalist polemic in seventeenth-century England
J. F. Merritt

officials, and fourteen out of the twenty-four members of Westminster’s quasi-local government, the Court of Burgesses.12 Perhaps the most significant names, though, are those of Edward Wardour and John Castle and, on a later membrane, of the clergymen Thomas Fuller and Richard Dukeson. These four men, along with John Chichley (of Covent Garden) and Laurance Lisle were all involved in taking the peace petition to the king in the name of Westminster two and a half weeks later. The peace petition to the Lords was presented by six people, of whom Wardour was one, and it

in Westminster 1640–60
Abstract only
J. F. Merritt

. Part of the problem has been that, as one of Westminster’s inhabitants Thomas Fuller wrote in 1662, its proximity to London has meant that Westminster has been obscured, ‘as a proper man seemeth a Dwarfe, when placed next to a Giant’.1 But Westminster has its own history. My earlier monograph The Social World of Early Modern Westminster (2005) sought to demonstrate the importance of Westminster as an area of study in its own right. This uniquely important urban centre was one of the largest towns in early modern England, encompassing a complex local society and

in Westminster 1640–60
Susan Royal

; in which, as yet we are amongst the last. 104 Milton’s call for further reform was challenged by Thomas Fuller, a Church of England clergyman and historian who responded in print. 105 Fuller was given personal access to John Foxe’s private papers, and his historical writing owes much to Acts and Monuments . 106 When writing The church-history of Britain (1655), years after his rebuttal of Milton’s pamphlet, Fuller was fully aware of Milton’s arguments about Wyclif when he repeated Foxe’s warning that due to the dark age Wyclif had

in Lollards in the English Reformation
Macbeth and the politics of language
Christopher Highley

southern subjects’ speech. According to Francis Bacon, James’s speech was ‘swift and cursory, and in the full dialect of his country’, while Thomas Fuller observed that: ‘His Scotch tone, [James] rather affected than declined; and though his speaking spoiled his speech in some English ears, yet the masculine worth of his set orations commanded reverence if not admiration in all judicious hearers; but in

in Shakespeare and Scotland