This book introduces the reader to emerging research in the broad field of 'imperial migration' and shows how this 'new' migration scholarship had developed our understanding of the British World. This is done through an analysis of some of former colonies of British Empire such as Australia, Canada, India and Zambia. The book focuses on the ideas of Reverend Thomas Malthus of how population movements presaged forces within sectors of a pre-industrial economy. The formation of national and imperial identities along racial lines in the mid-nineteenth century is covered by an analysis of the mid-nineteenth century British censuses. The clergy played a pivotal role in the importation and diffusion of a sense of British identity (and morality) to Australian churchgoers. The resistance and accommodation of Welsh Presbyterianism in Eastern Bengal is investigated through the varieties of engagement with Indian Christians and non-Christians. The book argues that Asian migration and the perceived threat it posed to the settler colonies was an issue which could unite these seemingly incongruent elements of the British World. Child migration has become a very sensitive and politically charged issue, and the book examines one of the lesser studied child migration agencies, the Middlemore Children's Emigration Homes. The book also deals with the cultural cross-currents in the construction of an Anglo-Canadian or 'Britannic' national identity. The white settlers' decisions to stay on after independence was granted to Zambia are instructive as it fills an important gap in our understanding of Africa's colonial legacy.

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Mapping the contours of the British World

inhabitants of the British World remained on the ‘Home Islands’. Richards’s chapter focuses on the Reverend Thomas Malthus, arguably the most important Victorian thinker on emigration, and his ideas about how population movements presaged forces within sectors of a pre-industrial economy. Emigration was seen by Malthus as only a temporary expedient that would never provide enduring relief to the social

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world

William Richardson was the only Irishmen to refute Thomas Malthus’s ideas in his famous Essay on the Principles of Population. This chapter explores Richardson’s foray into political economy. Richardson intervened in the debate about agricultural protectionism. He adopted the middle course of some Tories and Whigs which rejected self-interested protection and full scale intervention, classifying the English Poor Law as an example of ‘unskilled intervention.’ He also disagreed with Malthus’s argument about the correlation between population growth and famine, citing the Irish experience that more land could be cultivated thus facilitating population growth. This chapter argues that Richardson’s real criticism of Malthus was for pronouncing on a country, Ireland, which he had never visited and delivering judgements which discredited the landowning class. His core concern was that post-union governments did not understand Ireland.

in Science, politics and society in early nineteenth-century Ireland

that they are often deficient in the most simple notions of good and evil, of right and wrong.31 A trawl through the writings by other well-meaning visitors to Ireland – and I mean no irony; colonial racism was only part of the story – reveals many such pejorative quotes. Liberal political economists like Beaumont, Thomas Malthus and Richard Whately, the author of the Report of the 1835 Irish Poor Law Commission, all similarly decried the character of the Irish whilst opposing laws and rules that apparently hampered the ability of individuals to improve themselves

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Open Access (free)
Can historians assist development policy-making, or just highlight its faults?

Studies – as if Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus and Karl Marx had written about something else entirely. Given the direct similarities between the goals, methods, assumptions and even language of development agents today (including many NGOs) and those of colonial administrations, this is wilful – and harmful. There is an enormous amount to be gleaned from colonial records. Not only are they open to scrutiny – unlike those of UN organizations, for example – they are exceptionally full. Though they rarely took place in the public domain at the time, it is possible to trace

in History, historians and development policy

7 The leisured class, 1840 –1970 F or the upper and upper-middle classes of Victorian Britain time was structured more by leisure than by work. As Thomas Malthus explained in 1820, ‘The great laws of nature have provided for the leisure of a certain portion of society’.1 Duties and obligations of various kinds were expected of the leisured, but they were unpaid. An annual calendar, marked by regular events, many of them sporting, gave shape to their lives. A notch down the social scale, men did have to work for pay. Attracted by the lifestyle of the leisured

in Time, work and leisure

species that Darwin and Wallace commonly observed through their independently realised theorisations of Thomas Malthus’s population principle (Wallace, 1899 : 139). Wallace refers to evolution as ‘the great scientific work of the nineteenth century’ (p. 134), noting also that the philosopher of evolution, Herbert Spencer, wrote with ‘skill and logical powers’ that did much to prepare the minds of ‘unprejudiced readers’ (p. 138). Significantly, Wallace’s ‘wonderful century’ cast its net wider to reflect on the revolution

in Interventions
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. Local and national leaders, alarmed at the rise in poor rates, also argued the poor laws must change to discourage – rather than encourage – ‘vice’. As Lisa Forman Cody has argued, this concern peaked in the 1820s, influenced by Thomas Malthus’s theories of population, and concentrated in rural, southern parishes. Critics primarily blamed women, insisting they ‘trapped’ men, making a good living on a number of bastardy orders and losing all sense of decorum and self-reliance. As a result, Parliament set up a Law Commission to examine the Poor Law, and it recommended

in Illegitimacy in English law and society,1860–1930
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Horace Smith’s Mesmerism

collectively, and even engages Jane in an unconventional thought experiment that draws on Thomas Malthus’s theory on population. At the same time, he responds to Jane’s allusion to Mary Shelley’s The Last Man , recommending a more instructive subject for contemplation and literature than that novel’s: the ‘unutterable horrors [that] would curse an immortality of ever-increasing never

in The Gothic and death
Propaganda, Psychological Warfare and Persuasion

aspect of society. At the end of the eighteenth century, Thomas Malthus wrote that ‘a recruiting serjeant always prays for a bad harvest, and a want or unemployment, or, in other words a redundant population’. Motivating men to fight – for the history of warfare is largely the history of male aggression – has always been a major problem for history’s recruiting serjeants. Hence the need to glorify and publicize military achievements to a wider public in order to increase the sense of mutual identification. Soldiers fight better if they know that their Munitions_01

in Munitions of the Mind