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Marie Daugey

Until the beginning of the twentieth century, in the Kabye country, some heads of enemies – those of men foreign to the group – were buried in a mound of earth referred to as hude, meaning ‘manure’. In each locality, this mound is situated inside a wooded sanctuary where the spirit of the mythical founding ancestor resides. In order to understand this practice, this article examines how it fitted within the overall logic of the male initiation cycle, contextualising it in relation to past and present practices. Because it was a highly ambivalent element of the bush, the head of an enemy renewed the generative power of this original ‘manure’ prodigiously, so as to ensure the group’s survival in their land. The burial of the heads of strangers appears to be an initiatory variant of other forms of mastery of the ambivalence of wild forces, entrusted in other African societies to the chief and his waste heap.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Monarchy, military, colonialism, fascism and decolonization
Diana M. Natermann

It was the year 1960 and sub-Saharan Africa was in the midst of a decolonizing frenzy. The newly independent west African state Togo was celebrating the end of French rule and a new beginning as a sovereign state. 1 Interestingly enough, Sylvanus Olympio, 2 Togo’s first prime minister, decided to include a former colonizer of Togo to the list of international guests to the celebratory events: Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg (henceforth: Duke, 1873–1969). Together with the financial support of the German

in Global biographies
African–German encounters
Eva Bischoff

Chapter Four The goddess and the beast: African–German encounters Eva Bischoff On 26 August 1913, a young actress named Emma (Meg) Gehrts embarked on a journey to the German Schutzgebiet Togo. She accompanied the explorer and film-maker Hans Schomburgk to perform the female lead in the first movie filmed on site with African supernumeraries, revealingly called The White Goddess of the Wangora . As she was the first European woman to

in Savage worlds
Carla Monteleone
Kseniya Oksamytna

Australia, France, Luxembourg, Rwanda, Togo, United Kingdom, and United States African Union Mission to Somalia France, Togo, United Kingdom, and United States African Union Mission to Somalia Congo, France, Gabon, Luxembourg, Morocco, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Togo, United Kingdom, and United States

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory
Substance, symbols, and hope

The election of Barack Obama was a milestone in US history with tremendous symbolic importance for the black community. But was this symbolism backed up by substance? Did ordinary black people really benefit under the first black president?

This is the question that Andra Gillespie sets out to answer in Race and the Obama Administration. Using a variety of methodological techniques—from content analysis of executive orders to comparisons of key indicators, such as homeownership and employment rates under Clinton, Bush, and Obama— the book charts the progress of black causes and provides valuable perspective on the limitations of presidential power in addressing issues of racial inequality. Gillespie uses public opinion data to investigate the purported disconnect between Obama’s performance and his consistently high ratings among black voters, asking how far the symbolic power of the first black family in the White House was able to compensate for the compromises of political office.

Scholarly but accessible, Race and the Obama Administration will be of interest to students and lecturers in US politics and race studies, as well as to general readers who want to better understand the situation of the black community in the US today and the prospects for its improvement.

Youth, pop and the rise of Madchester

Madchester may have been born at the Haçienda in the summer of 1988, but the city had been in creative ferment for almost a decade prior to the rise of Acid House. The End-of-the-Century Party is the definitive account of a generational shift in popular music and youth culture, what it meant and what it led to. First published right after the Second Summer of Love, it tells the story of the transition from New Pop to the Political Pop of the mid-1980s and its deviant offspring, Post-Political Pop. Resisting contemporary proclamations about the end of youth culture and the rise of a new, right-leaning conformism, the book draws on interviews with DJs, record company bosses, musicians, producers and fans to outline a clear transition in pop thinking, a move from an obsession with style, packaging and synthetic sounds to content, socially conscious lyrics and a new authenticity.

This edition is framed by a prologue by Tara Brabazon, which asks how we can reclaim the spirit, energy and authenticity of Madchester for a post-youth, post-pop generation. It is illustrated with iconic photographs by Kevin Cummins.

Colonial powers and Ethiopian frontiers 1880–1884 is the fourth volume of Acta Aethiopica, a series that presents original Ethiopian documents of nineteenth-century Ethiopian history with English translations and scholarly notes. The documents have been collected from dozens of archives in Africa and Europe to recover and present the Ethiopian voice in the history of Ethiopia in the nineteenth century. The present book, the first Acta Aethiopica volume to appear from Lund University Press, deals with how Ethiopian rulers related to colonial powers in their attempts to open Ethiopia for trade and technological development while preserving the integrity and independence of their country. In addition to the correspondence and treatises with the rulers and representatives of Italy, Egypt and Great Britain, the volume also presents letters dealing with ecclesiastical issues, including the Ethiopian community in Jerusalem.

Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Last chance for a French African ‘empire-state’ or blueprint for decolonisation?
Martin Shipway

of the RDA, the PDG (Parti Démocratique de la Guinée), to break through the barriers of official resistance (Schmidt 2007: 68–96, 105). The Loi-Cadre thus did not create the trend to territorialisation, although it did confirm it and make it irreversible. Guiding principles of the Loi-Cadre Towards the end of the second parliament, several steps taken in the course of 1955 inched the French Union closer to the kind of institutional reforms envis- Defferre’s Loi-Cadre and its application21 aged in 1956. The first was the introduction of a new Statute for Togo

in Francophone Africa at fifty
Math Noortmann
Luke D. Graham

States. The AU replaces the Organization of African Unity (OAU), established in 1963 and dissolved in 2002. The Constitutive Act concluded in Lomé (Togo) has only 33 articles. A number of important issues have been left open to be elaborated in additional protocols. Its main objectives are to: promote unity and solidarity, and political and socio

in The basics of international law