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Marie Daugey

Until the beginning of the twentieth century, in the Kabye country, some heads of enemies – those of men foreign to the group – were buried in a mound of earth referred to as hude, meaning ‘manure’. In each locality, this mound is situated inside a wooded sanctuary where the spirit of the mythical founding ancestor resides. In order to understand this practice, this article examines how it fitted within the overall logic of the male initiation cycle, contextualising it in relation to past and present practices. Because it was a highly ambivalent element of the bush, the head of an enemy renewed the generative power of this original ‘manure’ prodigiously, so as to ensure the group’s survival in their land. The burial of the heads of strangers appears to be an initiatory variant of other forms of mastery of the ambivalence of wild forces, entrusted in other African societies to the chief and his waste heap.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Monarchy, military, colonialism, fascism and decolonization
Diana M. Natermann

It was the year 1960 and sub-Saharan Africa was in the midst of a decolonizing frenzy. The newly independent west African state Togo was celebrating the end of French rule and a new beginning as a sovereign state. 1 Interestingly enough, Sylvanus Olympio, 2 Togo’s first prime minister, decided to include a former colonizer of Togo to the list of international guests to the celebratory events: Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg (henceforth: Duke, 1873–1969). Together with the financial support of the German

in Global biographies
African–German encounters
Eva Bischoff

Chapter Four The goddess and the beast: African–German encounters Eva Bischoff On 26 August 1913, a young actress named Emma (Meg) Gehrts embarked on a journey to the German Schutzgebiet Togo. She accompanied the explorer and film-maker Hans Schomburgk to perform the female lead in the first movie filmed on site with African supernumeraries, revealingly called The White Goddess of the Wangora . As she was the first European woman to

in Savage worlds
Carla Monteleone
Kseniya Oksamytna

Australia, France, Luxembourg, Rwanda, Togo, United Kingdom, and United States African Union Mission to Somalia France, Togo, United Kingdom, and United States African Union Mission to Somalia Congo, France, Gabon, Luxembourg, Morocco, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Togo, United Kingdom, and United States

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory
Making Histories, 1750 to the Present

This book begins from the assumption that race and empire have been central to early modern and modern British history. It addresses the question of how histories written in the past, in different political times, dealt with, considered, or avoided and disavowed Britain's imperial role and issues of difference. The book considers how we might re-think British history in the light of transnational, trans-imperial and cross-cultural analysis, for British history may come to look very different once it is decentered from the national and placed within an imperial and global framework. It, in the contrary, starts from the premise that the denial of racial and ethnic conflicts inside the United Kingdom together with the absence of race as a central category of analysis in historical writing has significantly limited our understanding of British history. In the final part of the book Kathleen Wilson, Antoinette Burton and Geoff Eley all pose fundamental issues about the terrains of contemporary imperial and domestic history writing and the challenges of transnational and trans-imperial work. Wilson uses her eighteenth-century case studies to think about the ways in which mobility across space and time unsettle the idea of the nation as a collective experience. She asks how the English and British overseas contributed to notions of nationality, moving away from the writings of those who thought of themselves as historians to the writings of those who were crafting new notions of national history and identity in their reports and letters from liminal sites of empire.

Last chance for a French African ‘empire-state’ or blueprint for decolonisation?
Martin Shipway

of the RDA, the PDG (Parti Démocratique de la Guinée), to break through the barriers of official resistance (Schmidt 2007: 68–96, 105). The Loi-Cadre thus did not create the trend to territorialisation, although it did confirm it and make it irreversible. Guiding principles of the Loi-Cadre Towards the end of the second parliament, several steps taken in the course of 1955 inched the French Union closer to the kind of institutional reforms envis- Defferre’s Loi-Cadre and its application21 aged in 1956. The first was the introduction of a new Statute for Togo

in Francophone Africa at fifty
With a New Introduction by Marcelo G. Kohen

The author of this book, Sir Robert Yewdall Jennings, was one of the most distinguished British specialists in the field of International Law of the last century. The book starts with the traditional analysis of the different 'modes' of acquisition of territorial sovereignty as developed in doctrine since the very beginning of the science of international law. One of the merits of the book is precisely that, instead of focusing exclusively on or absolutely disregarding them, an approach other authors had adopted, it harmonizes the traditional modes with other elements that may influence the determination of sovereignty and that were not taken into account in the past. The traditional five 'modes' of acquisition of territorial sovereignty described by doctrine were: (1) occupation (2) prescription (3) cession (4) accession or accretion and (5) subjugation or conquest. In order to encompass other elements coming into play in the analysis of the acquisition of territorial sovereignty, the book included references to two devices of use in any dispute about territory: intertemporal law and the critical date. To complete the picture, a separate chapter of the book considers the place of recognition, acquiescence and estoppel in the realm of acquisition of title to territorial sovereignty. The book also clarifies the scope of estoppel in the field. It cannot by itself constitute a root of title, but it can assist in its determination.

Substance, symbols, and hope

The election of Barack Obama was a milestone in US history with tremendous symbolic importance for the black community. But was this symbolism backed up by substance? Did ordinary black people really benefit under the first black president?

This is the question that Andra Gillespie sets out to answer in Race and the Obama Administration. Using a variety of methodological techniques—from content analysis of executive orders to comparisons of key indicators, such as homeownership and employment rates under Clinton, Bush, and Obama— the book charts the progress of black causes and provides valuable perspective on the limitations of presidential power in addressing issues of racial inequality. Gillespie uses public opinion data to investigate the purported disconnect between Obama’s performance and his consistently high ratings among black voters, asking how far the symbolic power of the first black family in the White House was able to compensate for the compromises of political office.

Scholarly but accessible, Race and the Obama Administration will be of interest to students and lecturers in US politics and race studies, as well as to general readers who want to better understand the situation of the black community in the US today and the prospects for its improvement.

Muslim–Christian relations in the modern world

The Christian–Muslim engagement may be experienced at many levels: theological, political, cultural and global. The nature of Christian–Muslim relations in various states is also determining the scope of these states' international relations and alliances. Further Christianity experiences Islam as a religious and theological challenge. Since the earliest period in its history, the Islamic tradition has been conscious of the religious diversity of the human race and considered it an issue of importance. Yohannan Friedmann has reminded us that according to the Islamic tradition Islam is not only the historical religion and institutional framework that was brought into existence by the Muslim prophet Muhammad in the seventh century, but also the primordial religion of humankind, revealed to Adam at the time of his creation. It is thus that Christianity locates the challenge of Islam, not just as a historical encounter, which is of importance; or as a political force in the modern world; but also as a theological challenge. There is an intimacy to the Christian–Muslim encounter, which offers a familiarity, but allows for little theological commonality due to difference. Thus throughout the centuries since the rise of Islam, Muslim–Christian relations have revolved around this double axis of familiar, biblical appeal and strenuous, religious critique. It is this story that this book attempts to tell in a contemporary sense set against the global encounter between Christianity and Islam in the modern world.

Youth, pop and the rise of Madchester

Madchester may have been born at the Haçienda in the summer of 1988, but the city had been in creative ferment for almost a decade prior to the rise of Acid House. The End-of-the-Century Party is the definitive account of a generational shift in popular music and youth culture, what it meant and what it led to. First published right after the Second Summer of Love, it tells the story of the transition from New Pop to the Political Pop of the mid-1980s and its deviant offspring, Post-Political Pop. Resisting contemporary proclamations about the end of youth culture and the rise of a new, right-leaning conformism, the book draws on interviews with DJs, record company bosses, musicians, producers and fans to outline a clear transition in pop thinking, a move from an obsession with style, packaging and synthetic sounds to content, socially conscious lyrics and a new authenticity.

This edition is framed by a prologue by Tara Brabazon, which asks how we can reclaim the spirit, energy and authenticity of Madchester for a post-youth, post-pop generation. It is illustrated with iconic photographs by Kevin Cummins.