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The case of Romania

The post-communist transition in Romania has been a period rife with high hopes and expectations as well as strong disappointments and disillusions. The engagement with these disappointments or disillusions has mainly fallen along the lines of critical editorial comments by dissidents and intellectuals or academic engagements that connect it to different forms of social and political apathy. What seems to be lacking however, is a more head-on engagement with disillusionment as a self-contained process that is not just a side-effect of political corruption or economic failures but rather an intrinsic part of any transition. This book provides the basis for a theory of disillusionment in instances of transition. It also elaborates on how such a theory could be applied to a specific case-study, in this instance, the Romanian transition from communism to capitalism. By defining disillusionment as the loss of particularly strong collective illusions, the book identifies what those illusions were in the context of the Romanian 1989 Revolution. It also seeks to understand the extent to which disillusionment is intrinsic to social change, and more importantly, determine whether it plays an essential role in shaping both the direction and the form of change. The book further inevitably places itself at the intersection of a number of different academic literatures: from regional and comparative studies, political science and "transitology" studies, to sociology, psychology and cultural studies.

Shamanism and postsocialism in Northern Mongolia
Morten Axel Pedersen

7 Transitional cosmologies: shamanism and postsocialism in Northern Mongolia Morten Axel Pedersen Introduction This chapter1 explores the relationship between shamanism and postsocialism in Northern Mongolia. However, rather than treating shamanism as a religious cosmological framework by which people in Northern Mongolia bestow symbolic meanings to and thus make sense of the political-economic realities of postsocialist transition, my aim is to address the theme of cosmology in a somewhat more sideways fashion, by asking what a cosmology of postsocialism might

in Framing cosmologies
Mariam Salehi

The second stage in Tunisia's transitional justice process was marked by a shift in the focus of transitional justice activities from ad hoc measures to designing transitional justice and the introduction of a planned transitional justice project that went beyond the first steps towards institutionalisation discussed in the previous chapter. This shift is crucial for understanding the development of transitional justice in Tunisia and how the process interacted with the volatile political context, as the planned project became the

in Transitional justice in process
Developments and dynamics
Mariam Salehi

Transitional justice is an interdisciplinary field with blurred boundaries, which accounts for its “energy and vibrancy but also the immense disagreements inherent in the field” (Clark and Palmer 2012 , 1). These disagreements start with attempts to identify the origins of transitional justice. A major difference in the various accounts is whether the authors set the starting point of their analysis at when transitional justice – in the author's opinion – started to be done , or when what was done started to be called transitional justice

in Transitional justice in process
Mariam Salehi

This chapter focuses on the planned, institutionalised transitional justice project and its institutions in action. It shows how the planned transitional justice project interacted with political developments, dissects the interplay between these two elements, and demonstrates how transitional justice was performed in this setting. As will become clear, the processes I distinguish here analytically are deeply intertwined. In order to do so, the chapter mainly concentrates on the TDC, its work, and the debates it gave rise

in Transitional justice in process
Mariam Salehi

Scholars researching transitional justice processes often deem it remarkable that transitional justice measures, and especially a planned process, were initiated so quickly in Tunisia after the fall of the regime in 2011, while the country was in the midst of a political transition. 1 Prompt and robust engagement with the past, particularly through criminal trials, has been the exception rather than the norm in other cases (Fletcher, Weinstein, and Rowen 2009 , 204

in Transitional justice in process
Anca Mihaela Pusca

4 Shock and transitions If the previous chapter has tried to understand and explore both the positive and negative aspects of disillusionment as a particular framework for looking at transitions and periods of great social change, this chapter tries to better understand the initial point of change or transition, generally characterized by a so-called period of shock. By seeking to answer the question of how transitions came to be understood as generally positive times, the chapter explores different understandings of the concept of shock, arguing that perhaps

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
Global processes, local challenges

This book is a tribute to Enzo Mingione and his contribution to the fields of sociology and urban studies on the occasion of his retirement. It touches upon the processes of transformation of cities to the informal economy, from the Fordist crisis to the rediscovery of poverty, from the welfare state and welfare policies to migration and the transformation of work. These themes constitute the analytical building blocks of this book on the transitions that Western capitalist societies are undergoing. The book focuses on social foundations of Western capitalism, explaining how socio-economic and institutional complementarities that characterised postwar capitalism created relatively integrated socio-economic regimes, It has five thematic sections reflecting five areas of capitalism, the search interests of Enzo Mingione. The first discusses the transformations of global capitalism, addressing how capitalism works and how it changes. The second provides insights into the mechanisms of re-embedding, in particular how welfare policies are part of a societal reaction to capitalism's disruptive dynamic. The third addresses some main challenges that citizenship systems established in the post-war period have had to face, from the spread of new employment regimes to new migratory flows. The fourth addresses cities and their transformation and the final section addresses poverty and its spatial dimension as a crucial lens through which to understand the differentiated impact of the processes of change in Western capitalist societies, both in socio-economic and spatial terms.

The international connection
Francesco Cavatorta

3 Explaining Algeria’s transition: the international connection This chapter has three main objectives. First of all it aims to construct a framework of transitions that includes international variables, using theoretical assumptions drawn from international relations theories. Such framework can also help understand the subsequent role that the country under examination will play in the international system. The second objective is to specify the components of this framework. In particular, it will focus on detailing the two fundamental dimensions briefly

in The international dimension of the failed Algerian transition
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Education and development in modern Southeast Asian history
Tim Harper

Bayly 08_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:33 Page 193 8 The tools of transition: education and development in modern Southeast Asian history Tim Harper In 1935, one of Java’s greatest educators, Ki Hajar Dewantara (1889–1959), reflected on modern education and its accomplishments: It is not an easy task to go through a period of transition, and it becomes even harder when extraneous factors intervene in the renovation process, greatly hindering a normal adjustment. How often we have been misled by presumed needs which we considered natural but which we later realized

in History, historians and development policy