The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.
Again, this emphasises the main
objectives put forward by Tampere. Yet, it even goes one step further
when proclaiming a ‘proper sense of European Public Order’
(ibid., p. 2).
The Lisbon Treaty amends two
separate bodies of treaties: (1) the TreatyonEuropeanUnion (TEU), and
(2) the Treaty on the Functioning of the Union (TFEU). The latter
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis
This chapter examines the latest theoretical trends and the two treaty revisions that occurred during the mid-1980s and early 1990s, introducing the Single European Act and the Treaty on European Union (TEU), which resulted from the treaty revisions, and neofunctionalism, which re-emerged as the leading theory of European integration. The next part studies the state of theorising European integration in the 1990s in relation to the constitutional and political physiognomy of the Maastricht Treaty. The final part of the chapter focuses on the new theoretical approaches, which include the fusion thesis and new institutionalism.
The adaptation of the Portuguese administration to the new political and economic internal circumstances was parallel to the process of integration in the European Union. The correlation between internal changes and European integration has increased with the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The TEU led to a substantial reform in the Portuguese constitution and it has changed the role of the Parliament in the control of the European Community (EC) legislation. At the same time, almost all the ministries had to create or adapt their services and institutions even those traditionally less 'Europeanised', such as the police forces and the judicial authorities. The Portuguese case shows that domestic political change is influential in the definition of European policies. Portuguese civil society is also learning how to deal with European integration. In the future, civil society, through its organised representatives, is likely to play an increasing role in Portugal's European policies.
This book examines the underlying foundations on which the European Union's counter-terrorism and police co-operation policies have been built since the inception of the Treaty on European Union, questioning both the effectiveness and legitimacy of the EU's efforts in these two security areas. Given the importance of such developments to the wider credibility of the EU as a security actor, it adopts a more structured analysis of key stages of the implementation process. These include the establishment of objectives, both at the wider level of internal security co-operation and in terms of both counter-terrorism and policing, particularly in relation to the European Police Office, the nature of information exchange and the ‘value added’ by legislative and operational developments at the European level. The book also offers a more accurate appraisal of the official characterisation of the terrorist threat within the EU as a ‘matter of common concern’. In doing so, not only does it raise important questions about the utility of the European level for organising internal security co-operation, but it also provides a more comprehensive assessment of the EU's activities throughout the lifetime of the Third Pillar, placing in a wide and realistic context the EU's reaction to the events of 11 September 2001 and the greater prominence of Islamist terrorism.
investment. The EU also agreed, in 1992, on the
ambitious Maastricht TreatyonEuropeanUnion, foreseeing, especially,
an Economic and Monetary Union (a single currency) by the end of the
decade and a common foreign and security policy.
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The disintegration of Yugoslavia beginning in 1990, and the several
wars it led to, posed serious challenges to the EU and NATO, apart from
signifying a tragedy for the people of the region. A further challenge to the
EU came with an unexpected Danish referendum ‘no’ to the
European Parliament and extended provision for qualified majority voting (QMV) in the Council of Ministers, thus making it difficult for a single nation to veto a proposal to which it was opposed. The Maastricht Treaty (later titled the TreatyonEuropeanUnion), taking effect in 1993, created the European Union and introduced a co-decision procedure, making the European Parliament in large measure a partner with the Council of Ministers in legislating in certain fields. The treaty extended the existing economic community to co-operation in foreign policy, military and
Between international relations and European studies
Ben Tonra and Thomas Christiansen
analytical frameworks that can be brought to bear on the vast empirical
material of EU foreign policy. Most of these do so from a constructivist
vantage point, not so much as deux ex machina but as something of a
redressed balance against the rationalist-based approaches which predominate
in the field.
EU foreign policy: a novel regime in international
While the 1993 TreatyonEuropeanUnion
Intergovernmental Conference JHA Justice and Home Affairs (pillar of the EU) NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation OEEC Organisation for European Economic Co-operation OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries OSCE Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe QMV Qualified Majority Voting SEA Single European Act TEU TreatyonEuropeanUnion (Maastricht Treaty) UN (see UNO) UNO United Nations Organisation WEU Western European Union WTO World Trade Organisation
Diplomatic embarrassment and European democratic identity
The trend towards a common EU approach in criminal matters was confirmed by Article K.1.7 of the 1992 TreatyonEuropeanUnion, which stated explicitly that Member States should regard judicial co-operation in criminal matters as a matter of common interest.
The desire to relax the conditions and political grounds for refusing extradition was indeed inscribed on the agenda, but strong divergences between Member States meant that the debates were stalled