In the early twenty-first century, children fathered by foreign soldiers during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-based violence. This book investigates the situations of children born of war (CBOW) since the Second World War, provides a historical synthesis that moves beyond individual case studies, and explores circumstances across time and geopolitical location. The currently used definitions and categorisations of CBOW are presented together with an overview of some key groups of CBOW. Specific conflict areas are chosen as key case studies on the basis of which several core themes are explored. These conflicts include the Second World War (1939-1945) with the subsequent post-war occupations of Germany and Austria (1945-1955). The Vietnam War (1955-1975), the Bosnian War (1992-1995), some African Conflicts of the 1990s and early 2000s, in particular in Rwanda (1994) and Uganda (1988-2006), are also examined. In the case studies, the experiences of the children are explored against the background of the circumstances of their conception. For example, the situation of the so-called Bui Doi, children of American soldiers and Vietnamese mothers is examined. The experiences of Amerasian CBOW who were adopted into the United States as infants following the Operation Babylift and those who moved as young adults following the American Homecoming Act are juxtaposed. The book also looks into the phenomenon of children fathered by UN peacekeeping personnel as a starting point for a discussion of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW.
spaces. Statutory and customary laws regulate matters of justice, demonstrating the connectedness of local communities with their ethnic and religious
group, which offer opportunities for civic action and therefore provide the
context for post-conflict reintegration mechanisms.
Chapter 7 will consider the relatively recent phenomenon of children
fathered by UNpeacekeepingpersonnel as a starting point for a discussion
of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW. As a consequence of the allegations against members of the UN peacekeeping forces
HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases
caused alarm, little action was taken on the part of the UN. This was despite
the fact that the civilian population had raised the issue of UNTAC personnel’s
inappropriate behaviour with their military leadership. Tacit acceptance prevailed of the notion that the sexual appetites of the fit young men had to be met
and their ‘needs’ had to be fulfilled.14
Similarly, in Bosnia and Kosovo, NATO and UNpeacekeepingpersonnel
were widely understood to be important clients for sexual services, and the
increased demands were met