Neoliberal crisis, neoliberal solutions

Once held up as a 'poster child' for untrammeled capitalist globalisation, the Irish Republic has more recently come to represent a cautionary tale for those tempted to tread the same neoliberal path. The crash in the world economy had especially grave repercussions for Ireland, and a series of austerity measures has seen the country endure the most substantial 'adjustment' ever experienced in a developed society during peacetime. This book delineates the reactionary course that Ireland has followed since the ignominious demise of the Celtic Tiger. It argues that the forces of neoliberalism have employed the economic crisis they caused to advance policies that are in their own narrow interests, and that the host of regressive measures imposed since the onset of global recession has fundamentally restructured Irish society. The book discusses the mechanisms by which finance in Ireland sustains and reproduces itself, in particular how it was able to protect itself during the 2008 crisis. Property was at the centre of the second phase of the Celtic Tiger boom after US investment in manufacturing began to decline, leading to the Irish economic crash. The years since the onset of the recession in Ireland in 2008 have been characterised not by passivity and quietism but by extreme violence. In December 2009 as part of the first wave of austerity, the Community Development Project was informed that the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs proposed not to continue funding the project beyond the end of 2009.

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Private greed, political negligence and housing policy after Grenfell

As the tragedy of the Grenfell Tower fire of 14 June 2017 has slowly revealed a shadowy background of outsourcing and deregulation, and a council turning a blind eye to health and safety concerns, many questions need answers. Stuart Hodkinson has those answers. Safe as Houses weaves together Stuart’s research over the last decade with residents’ groups in council regeneration projects across London to provide the first comprehensive account of how Grenfell happened and how it could easily have happened in multiple locations across the country. It draws on examples of unsafe housing either refurbished or built by private companies under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) to show both the terrible human consequences of outsourcing and deregulation and how the PFI has enabled developers, banks and investors to profiteer from highly lucrative, taxpayer-funded contracts. The book also provides shocking testimonies of how councils and other public bodies have continuously sided with their private partners, doing everything in their power to ignore, deflect and even silence those who speak out. The book concludes that the only way to end the era of unsafe regeneration and housing provision is to end the disastrous regime of self-regulation. This means strengthening safety laws, creating new enforcement agencies independent of government and industry, and replacing PFI and similar models of outsourcing with a new model of public housing that treats the provision of shelter as ‘a social service’ democratically accountable to its residents.

Seán Ó Riain

-American ‘Atlantic economy’, with close ties to both the UK and US, rooted in colonialism and migration.5 However, these international relationships have become more complex over time. Ireland deliberately relocated itself in the global economy as part of its strategy of economic development. While it retained close ties to the UK, the Irish state firmly repositioned itself as a ‘gateway to Europe’ for US corporations. Ireland became a significant hub for US investment networks from the 1970s to the 2000s. However, from the early 2000s, these international ties changed as

in Are the Irish different?
Class polarisation and neo-liberalism in the Irish Republic
Kieran Allen

. According to Bradley, the Irish state did not primarily select ‘segments of indigenous industry with the objective of gaining in efficiency and capturing greater export market share’ but rather it adopted ‘policies designed mainly to encourage export-orientated foreign direct investment inflows’.6 The consequence of this strategy was that the primary impetus for growth came from a number of highly specialised sectors in which US capital was dominant. By the turn of the century, Ireland had by far the highest level of direct US investment per manufacturing worker of any

in The end of Irish history?
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Andrew Roberts

, but within three years the future of the British cinema was one of independent actors and directors using the studio facilities. The ‘Britishness’ of such actors, including overseas-born stars, was emphasised in newspaper advertisements and studio publicity at a time when US investment within the UK film industry was ever-increasing. The Eady Levy 3 of 1950 included US-backed productions (Stubbs 2009 : 5) and between 1954 and 1956 the proportion of British films distributed by US firms doubled (Harper and Porter 2003 : 30). In 1962 Vincent Canby stated that

in Idols of the Odeons
Ben Tonra

Communities (FitzGerald 2002). Earlier legislative and taxation changes also served to attract international – specifically US – industrial investment to the state. In the decade of the 1960s more than 350 foreign-owned industrial concerns – mostly US – were established. These firms, by the mid1970s, employed more than a quarter of the manufacturing workforce, accounted for more than 65 per cent of all non-UK destined exports, totalled 77 78 Global citizen and European Republic more than $2 billion in US investment and represented the largest per capita US investment in

in Global citizen and European Republic
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The past in the present/the present in the past
Paul Newland

backed Cromwell and Young Winston (Richard Attenborough, 1972), Hal B. Wallis produced Anne of a Thousand Days (Charles Jarrott, 1970) and Mary, Queen of Scots (Charles Jarrott, 1971) for Universal. These films were expensively produced but in most cases did not make profits, thus impacting on the subsequent withdrawal of US investment from the British film industry.43 A number of historical ‘Carry On’ films were also made during the decade, such as Carry On Henry (Gerald Thomas, 1971) and Carry On Dick (Gerald Thomas, 1974). But these films only ever ‘play’ at being

in British films of the 1970s
Kieran Allen

to lend truth to the claim that ‘a rising tide lifts all boats’. The third phase, the Celtic Tiger, was even more spectacular in its success and ultimate failure. It began fortuitously when the formation of the single EU economic market encouraged US firms to seek a location inside its borders. They chose Ireland because it was English-speaking, had a relatively educated workforce with comparatively low wages and, crucially, had a low tax regime. When the flow of US investment began to run out after the 2002 economic recession, Fianna Fáil attempted to prolong the

in Are the Irish different?
Oonagh McDonald

amendments to the 1934 Securities Exchange Act in August 2004. These amendments permitted the non-bank affiliated holding companies of the US broker-dealers the alternative of ‘voluntarily’ committing themselves to having the SEC as supervisor. They then became ‘consolidated supervised entities’ (CSEs) and continued to operate in the EU and the EEA. All of the Big Five US investment banks became CSEs. Regulations for the consolidated supervised entities The new regulations for the five stand-alone investment banks are set out in the

in Lehman Brothers
G. Honor Fagan

unemployment as national industries collapsed, but by the 1990s a new era of prosperity seemed to begin. Officially, the boom began in 1994, when, in an obscure European investment assessment bulletin, the US investment bank Morgan Stanley asked, perhaps tongue in cheek, whether there was a new Celtic Tiger about to join the family of East Asian tiger economies. So, the Celtic Tiger emerged just when ‘globalisation’ was beginning to make itself felt in earnest. This does not mean that globalisation produced the Celtic Tiger, whose origins lay, as we saw in the bare outline

in The end of Irish history?