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Edward Ashbee

. The ways in which they are resolved have significant implications for the powers of government and the rights of the individual. They affect the functioning of the economy, the character of social provision (such as healthcare), and the availability of guns, as well as the position of women and minorities. Decisions about the legality of same-sex marriage and abortion have been subject to rulings by the US Supreme Court. There is thus a contrast between the US and many other countries. Political issues that in

in US politics today (fourth edition)
Open Access (free)
Justin A. Joyce

Justin A. Joyce introduces the eighth volume of James Baldwin Review with a discussion of the US Supreme Court, the misdirected uproar over Critical Race Theory, a survey of canonical dystopian novels, and the symbolism of masking during COVID-19.

James Baldwin Review
Kevern Verney

by George Lewis and Jeff Woods. 61 The famous school desegregation decision of the US Supreme Court in the 1954 Brown ruling was another issue that engaged the minds of historians in the 1990s, but for different reasons. If the Cold War attracted interest as a period of history that had drawn to a close, Brown merited attention because of the ongoing legacy of desegregation and the continuing involvement of the Supreme Court in civil rights issues

in The debate on black civil rights in America, Second edition
Series: Politics Today
Author:

The book introduces the principles underpinning the US Constitution and, on the basis of this, surveys core federal institutions: Congress, the presidency, and the US Supreme Court and lower courts. The different chapters outline the defining features of each and introduce some of the core scholarly debates about their powers and performance. The book also considers processes of political participation through elections, parties, and organised interests. It looks, in particular, at the changing nature of voting behaviour, the reasons why electoral turnout levels are comparatively low, and the different reasons why Donald Trump secured the presidency in the 2016 contest. It also considers the character of the party system and claims that organised interests, particularly groups representing those at the highest ends of the income and wealth scales, play a disproportionate role in the US system. The book thereby offers a guide to debates about the democratic ‘health’ of the contemporary US. The final chapter places the study of US politics in a comparative and theoretical context. It suggests that comparative approaches are essential if political developments and processes are to be fully understood. It then considers the value of employing theoretical frameworks in the study of politics and explores the ways in which structural theories, approaches drawing upon representations of political culture, and rational choice perspectives can explain political outcomes.

A conceptual history
Author:

This book provides a critical, conceptual-historical analysis of democracy at the United Nations, detailed in four ‘visions’ of democracy: civilization, elections, governance and developmental democracy. ‘I know it when I see it’ were the famous words of US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart on defining obscenity. It is with the same conviction and (un)certainty that liberal peacebuilders and democracy promoters have used democracy to achieve both the immediate goals of peacekeeping and the broader, global mission of the UN. Today, democracy may have gained an international dimension, yet its success as an organizational practice depends on how it has been defined. Drawing on political theory and democratization scholarship, the book questions the meaning of this well-‘known’ idea. It analyses the way in which the UN, through its Secretary-General, relevant agencies and organizational practices, have thought about, conceptualized and used democracy. The book shows that while the idea of democracy's ‘civilizing’ nature has played a prominent part in its use by the UN, an early focus on sovereignty and self-determination delayed the emergence of the democracy agenda until the 1990s. Today, a comprehensive democracy agenda incorporates not only elections but a broad range of liberal-democratic institutions. Despite this, the agenda is at an impasse, both practically and philosophically. The book questions whether an extension of the UN democracy agenda to include ‘developmental democracy’ is feasible.

Abstract only
The warp, woof, and weave of American gun violence
Justin A. Joyce

This introductory chapter lays down the theoretical framework for the foregoing analyses, taking many cues from legal studies, US Supreme Court cases and Foucauldian theory. In the world of the Western, the procedural focus of American law gets in the way of justice. The genre embraces justice by gun violence rather than by trial, and has therefore often been read as ‘anti-law.’ From the early dime-novel fascination with such outlaws and renegades as Billy the Kid and Jesse James, through depictions of lynching in Owen Wister’s 1902 novel, The Virginian, and the film The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), to the guns-blazing heroics of films such as Rio Bravo (1959), High Noon (1952), and Shane (1953), through the darker critiques of The Gunfighter (1950), The Wild Bunch (1969), and Unforgiven (1992), to the postmodern pastiche of Django Unchained (2012), the Western has nourished a vision of social organization and a means for delivering justice that operates outside the official parameters of American law, relying on a gunslinging hero to uphold order. This chapter argues, in fact, that this opposition is progressively undone in the genre’s formulaic shootouts. The cherished antipathy between ‘the law’ and the Western’s ‘law of the gun’ is, in short, unfounded.

in Gunslinging justice
Kevern Verney

This chapter examines the longstanding historiographical debate on the life and career of Booker T. Washington, the internationally renowned educator and best-known spokesperson for African Americans within the United States from 1895 to 1915. Washington’s critics within the black community are similarly discussed, including Timothy Thomas Fortune and the National Afro-American Council, William Monroe Trotter, W. E. B. Du Bois, the Niagara Movement and the formation of the biracial National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Scholarly debates on wider developments in US race relations are considered, including the origins, nature and impact of the spread of racial segregation, the constitutional legality of which was upheld by the US Supreme Court in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision. There is an evaluation of the economic consequences of the rise of the sharecropper system in the South, together with the reasons for the spread of lynching in the southern states, its impact on African American communities and the efforts of anti-lynching campaigners like Ida B. Wells. The institutional racism within the legal and carceral systems, as reflected in the growth of convict-leasing, is also assessed. The political disfranchisement campaigns against African Americans in the southern states are examined together with the nature and significance of biracial alliances in the populist and labour movements. There is an analysis of the impact of racial stereotyping in popular culture, as in blackface minstrelsy, sport and early Hollywood film, and the contribution of women campaigners to the African American freedom struggle.

in The debate on black civil rights in America, Second edition
Robert J. McKeever

stood. Nevertheless, the determined Gideon decided to appeal to the US Supreme Court – the highest court in the land. He would ask the Supreme Court to overrule its earlier decision in Betts v. Brady , and thus interpret the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process clause in a new way – to require the provision of defence counsel for indigents accused of serious crimes. At this point, the discretion of the US Supreme Court came into play. It had two fundamental decisions to make. The first was whether to entertain Gideon’s appeal at all. If it so wished, the Court could

in The United States Supreme Court
Abstract only
Edward Ashbee

government. In later years, the US Supreme Court would progressively extend these limits so that the liberties granted to individuals in the Bill of Rights also had to be respected by the state governments as well as the national government. Principles of the Constitution The Constitution was a product of the turmoil around the issues described above. It has six core principles: It provided a form of government based, in part, upon the representation of the people. Indeed, the Constitution

in US politics today (fourth edition)
Marcel H. Van Herpen

trust barometer.” www.edelman.com/trust2017/trust-and-us-presidential-election/ (accessed 6 January 2018). 24 Cf. website of the US Supreme Court. www.supremecourt.gov/about/biographies.aspx (accessed 4 October 2017). 25 Patti Waldmeir, “Party politics provides a poor guide to positions of the Supreme Court,” Financial Times , 2 July 2004. This does not mean, however, that in increasingly polarized situations the judges are “ideology-free.” As Robert Dahl rightly remarks, “Inevitably, in interpreting the constitution judges bring their own ideology

in The end of populism