Belfast since 1780

Civic identity and public space, focussing on Belfast, and bringing together the work of a historian and two social scientists, offers a new perspective on the sometimes lethal conflicts over parades, flags and other issues that continue to disrupt political life in Northern Ireland. The first part of the book shows how these disputes had their origins in the changes that took place during the nineteenth century in the character of urban living, creating new forms of public space whose regulation was from the start a matter of contention and debate. Later chapters show how the establishment of a new Northern Ireland state, with Belfast as its capital, saw unionism and Protestantism achieve a near-complete monopoly of public space. In more recent decades, this monopoly has broken down, partly as a result of political violence, but also through the influence of new ideas of human rights and of a more positive vision of political and cultural diversity. Today policy makers and politicians struggle to devise a strategy for the management of public space in a divided city, while endeavouring to promote a new sense of civic identity that will transcend long-standing political and sectarian divisions.

Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

haze had little knowledge, understanding or guidance of how to reduce the impact for the community in need. The second context challenge confronting humanitarian response organisations is the rapid growth in urbanisation. Population densities are changing from rural to urban living, with estimates that the 54 per cent of the global population currently living in urban areas is projected to increase to 66 per cent by 2050 ( UNDESA, 2014 ). In South Asia, 190.7 million people reside in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Public space – past lessons and future strategies
Dominic Bryan, S. J. Connolly and John Nagle

the past contribute anything to these ongoing debates? Here again it is important to attend to historical context. The philosophy of government that shaped the rapidly growing towns and cities of the nineteenth century reflected the distinctive attitudes and values of the Victorian era. At its heart was a new belief in the potential of urban living: a conviction that the town, long seen as inferior to the countryside in morals and manners, could in fact be a centre of culture and civic virtue, as well as of wealth and commerce. To this was

in Civic identity and public space
Tom Scriven

this constitutional strategy and an attempt to address the social grievances made evident in the demands of the grassroots in 1842. The ideological and theoretical aspects of the Land Plan have been neglected and largely treated as under-​developed and ‘reactionary’. This chapter will outline how the Land Plan came to incorporate Chartism’s improvement culture, largely because of their shared basis in social Radicalism’s critique of industrial capitalism, societal degradation, and urban living conditions. As much as it was an attempt to relocate urban workers onto

in Popular virtue
Abstract only
Thomas Almeroth-Williams

treat lameness.37 The medicalisation of equine care generated new possibilities for sick and injured horses but also far greater costs for their owners. These were remarkable developments but an even more dramatic expression of equine consumer power was its impact on the built environment. The Georgian West End is often described as an ‘innovation in urban living’ but historians rarely cite the construction of thousands of stables and coach houses, laid out in carefully planned mews complexes, as evidence of this.38 This is a serious oversight because mews were not

in City of beasts
Abstract only
Lindsey Earner-Byrne

factor militating against motherhood is the impression abroad that frequent childbearing leads to physical and mental breakdown. No evidence, however, has ever been adduced to support this view.1 Apart from associating ‘materialism’ with urban living, and urban living with anti-family values, the Bishop was also expressing a very real fear that mothers themselves were shying away from motherhood. While modern living may have provided a more comprehensive welfare medical system, it was also part of the process that changed people’s perceptions about the quality and

in Mother and child
Abstract only
Chris Abel

,’ convincing, since they overlook those same human factors that underlay the failure of previous civilizations, and which still persist. Though the pace of change is presently painfully slow – and possibly fatally so – one of the more positive indicators of future changes may be found in the growing shift from private modes of transportation to public modes – where such services are available – as the rising price of fuel and other living costs compel otherwise reluctant suburban populations to adjust to realities. In addition to new models for high-density urban living now

in The extended self
Philip Lawton

leisure. The differentiation of each space took a number of forms, such as unique lamp standards on St Patrick Street in Cork by Catalan architect Beth Gali or, indeed, the Spire as a new landmark for Dublin (Lawton, 2009) (Figure 7.1). To the extent that public space was opened up to a greater level of usage, these endeavours had a positive impact upon urban space. In reality, however, the virtues of a more compact form of urban living around renewed public spaces became more of a side-show, or gloss, with property and profit dictating the nature of urban development

in Spacing Ireland
Mark Brown

briefly examine how recent urban theory has related the global processes of spatial formation in the city with the immediate and personal experiences of urban living, before exploring how the characters in Auster’s films combine knowledge of the global and the local, and how he fashions from this knowledge a qualified celebration of the contemporary metropolis. The central space of the films is the Brooklyn Cigar Company store, where baseball is the usual subject of discussion. Baseball in Brooklyn will always mean the Brooklyn Dodgers, who were moved to Los Angeles by

in Paul Auster
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J. F. Merritt

sophisticated urban living found in Italian cities, while more generally the houses of its wealthy residents gave directly onto spacious streets, letting in plenty of light and with little thought of defence. This development is often associated with the emergence of a gentrified West End, and its residents were doubtless customers of the New Exchange (popularly known as ‘Britain’s Burse’), the luxury shopping devel 6 See Chapter 6. 7 Merritt_Westminster_Final.indd 7 22/07/2013 14:59 Westminster 1640–60 opment by Salisbury House, which had opened in 1609, partly

in Westminster 1640–60