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Essays on Rudyard Kipling
Editor: Jan Montefiore

This book is a collection of essays on Rudyard Kipling and brings historical, literary critical and postcolonial approaches to this perennially controversial writer. The first and fairest thing to say about Kipling is that he has borne a brilliant part in recovering the lost provinces of poetry. Kipling's morality is the morality of someone who has to prove that God is not responsible for part of the world, and that the Devil is. Kipling's imperialist opinions became more strident after the Boer War he lost the esteem of British literary intellectuals, whom he in turn despised. The book addresses Kipling's approach to the Boer war, his involvement with World War One, his Englishness and the politics of literary quotation. It demonstrates the effects of a Kipling-conditioned world on Edward Thomas, Ivor Gurney and David Jones. The book focuses on Kipling's collection of stories and accompanying poems, Actions and Reactions, which was published in October 1909. It also probes the historical subtext of the children's fable Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and Indian history, Kipling's search for God, and his longest Indian experience of footloose travel in the Native states of North India. Stalky & Co is the text of Kipling's which features the largest number of quotations. Kipling's notion of the ideally masculine 'army man' in relation to contemporary late Victorian discourses and practices of same-sex passion is analyzed. The book also addresses Kipling's views on the question of fascism, anti-Semitism and the 'doctrine of racial superiority'.

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Masturbation in Victorian fiction and medical culture
Author: Diane Mason

This book provides a reading of both fictional and medical writings concerned with auto-erotic sexuality in the long nineteenth century. It examines the discourse on masturbation in medical works by influential English, Continental and American practitioners such as J. H. Kellogg, E. B. Foote, Havelock Ellis, Krafft-Ebing and R. V. Pierce, as well as a number of anonymously authored texts popular in the period. The book demonstrates the influence and impact of these writings, not only on the underworld literatures of Victorian pornography but also in the creation of well-known characters by authors now regarded as canonical including Dean Farrar, J. S. Le Fanu, Charles Dickens, Oscar Wilde and Bram Stoker. It is not merely a consideration of the male masturbator however: it presents a study of the largely overlooked literature on female masturbation in both clinical and popular medical works aimed at the female reader, as well as in fiction. The book concludes with a consideration of the way the distinctly Victorian discourse on masturbation has persisted into the late-twentieth and twenty-first centuries with particular reference to Willy Russell's tragic-comic novel, The Wrong Boy (2000) and to the construction of ‘Victorian Dad’, a character featured in the adult comic, Viz.

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Diane Mason

of the physically debilitated and morally self-conscious Victorian onanist continues to lurk in the popular imagination. 21 Within this context, a female eye-witness to a solitary ‘indecent act’ in a ‘popular wood’, reported recently in an English provincial newspaper, notably described the ‘skinny’ perpetrator with his ‘jutting lower jaw’ as ‘a sad and pathetic sight’. 22 Russell’s appropriation of the Victorian discourse on masturbation then, albeit reworked as comic irony, may, on the surface, permit the twenty-first century reader to

in The secret vice
The sexual and financial afterlives of Jane Eyre
Louisa Yates

create an impression of Victorian literary expertise. Imagining and reading are creative mental processes, and, as we shall see in the next section, reading and imagining are linked in neo-​Victorian discourse, the 264 265 Sexual and financial afterlives latter becoming a creative (fictional) response to elisions in (historical) documents. But the prefix in ‘reimagined’ indicates a return, a second process, a realisation of what was present but buried. This is reinforced with ‘re-​work’, which again suggests a remodelling of extant material, returning again to the

in Charlotte Brontë
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Ian Burney

as a matter of science were properly grounded in hard, material fact. He was no mere magician. And yet, toxicology in practice, much like the broader Victorian discourse on poison, was haunted by the difficulties of getting hold of and providing a stable representation of this illusive agent of crime. Poison detection called on creative acts of perception on the part of its experts: of analytical results that required a degree of imagination to secure their standing as matters of fact. It is this vision of poison – the collective product of the Victorian public

in Poison, detection, and the Victorian imagination
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Byrne Katherine, Taddeo Julie Anne, and Leggott James

‘a female malady’, O’Callaghan and Fanning’s chapter on the miniseries To Walk Invisible (2016) about the Brontë siblings showcases a rare dramatic example of the male sufferer. However, as they detail, this series distorted Victorian discourses on alcoholism and male insanity to present a moralistic view of Branwell Brontë, blaming him for his illness. While the series empowers the sisters’ narrative in very modern ways through a

in Diagnosing history
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

mother’s care, although in that article she ignored the Virgin Mary almost entirely and instructed her readers to do the same when she urged them: ‘Take notice, the wise men paid no adoration to the virgin mother, but to the child only.’39 Rarely if ever did Victorian discourse describe a mother caring for her infant, as she was expected to do, as a threat to masculine authority, except when the mother was the Virgin Mary. The theological significance of the Nativity, combined with the power of the idealised mother figure in Victorian culture, leads one to expect that

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
Carol Engelhardt Herringer

, economically, and socially; their educational and work opportunities were limited in comparison to men’s. Yet the Catholic Mary defied these restrictions as she moved beyond the limits of the domestic sphere to command the attention of men as well as women. In addition, the Catholic Mary blurred the gender boundaries Victorian discourse worked so hard to separate when she was held up as a model for men as well as women. Certainly Victorian culture produced other models of behaviour that ignored gender boundaries. Purity crusaders such as Josephine Butler, famous for her

in Victorians and the Virgin Mary
Douglas A. Lorimer

Victorian discourse on race and how it changed in the course of the nineteenth century, the place to begin is 1837. In that year, Queen Victoria’s accession began a long reign in which she came to personify the era, and perhaps more modestly, the APS began its long struggle against the destructive impact of empire on the world’s peoples. Notes

in Science, race relations and resistance
J.W.M. Hichberger

that the desired emotion was aroused ‘without requiring intermediate processes of thought for its full realisation’. 5 Charlton was able to rely on the ‘correct’ interpretation of his painting because of the powerful network of mythologies surrounding the relation of horses to humans. Their loyalty was ‘well known’, i.e. was a familiar element of Victorian discourse, and

in Images of the army