The Arctic region has been the subject of much popular writing. This book considers nineteenth-century representations of the Arctic, and draws upon an extensive range of evidence that will allow the 'widest connections' to emerge from a 'cross-disciplinary analysis' using different methodologies and subject matter. It positions the Arctic alongside more thoroughly investigated theatres of Victorian enterprise. In the nineteenth century, most images were in the form of paintings, travel narratives, lectures given by the explorers themselves and photographs. The book explores key themes in Arctic images which impacted on subsequent representations through text, painting and photography. For much of the nineteenth century, national and regional geographical societies promoted exploration, and rewarded heroic endeavor. The book discusses images of the Arctic which originated in the activities of the geographical societies. The Times provided very low-key reporting of Arctic expeditions, as evidenced by its coverage of the missions of Sir John Franklin and James Clark Ross. However, the illustrated weekly became one of the main sources of popular representations of the Arctic. The book looks at the exhibitions of Arctic peoples, Arctic exploration and Arctic fauna in Britain. Late nineteenth-century exhibitions which featured the Arctic were essentially nostalgic in tone. The Golliwogg's Polar Adventures, published in 1900, drew on adult representations of the Arctic and will have confirmed and reinforced children's perceptions of the region. Text books, board games and novels helped to keep the subject alive among the young.
Emma Tennant’s Thornfield Hall, Jasper Fforde’s The Eyre Affair and Gail Jones’s Sixty Lights
dialogic imagination, over individual voice –in
Tennant’s vision for the work and, arguably, in the neo-Victorianenterprise more broadly. (We might also note the likely economic imperative
to this renaming: an ethics of marketability, with the Brontëan source
text more immediately recognisable in the title.) Chapters in Thornfield
Hall are told in the first person by Adèle, Edward Rochester, Grace Poole
and Mrs Fairfax (but intriguingly not Bertha/Antoinette), and this multiplicity of voices opens up perspectives on a host of other characters
from Brontë’s text and
(New Haven, CT and London: Yale University
Press), pp. 37–9.
19 S. Phillips, Guide to the Crystal Palace and Park (London: Bradbury & Evans,
1854), p. 163.
20 C. Hobhouse, 1851 and the Crystal Palace (London, 1937), pp. 159–60. P. Beaver,
The Crystal Palace 1851–1936. A Portrait of VictorianEnterprise (London, 1970) also
portrays the Sydenham Palace as an amusing Victorian curiosity.
21 Sport is explored in further detail in Chapter 5. On amusement parks see
J. Kane, The Architecture of Pleasure: British Amusement Parks 1900–1939 (Farnham
Picador, 1988), pp. 387–477.
30 Conekin, ‘Fun and Fantasy’, 129.
31 Kent State University, Ohio, James Broughton Papers, collection 1, box 26,
folio 7, James Broughton, The Pleasure Garden, early treatment.
32 A. H. Coxe, ‘It Sprang from the Spring Gardens’, in Festival of Britain
Commission, Pleasure Gardens, Battersea Park Guide (London: Festival of Britain,
1951), pp. 44–8.
33 M. Foucault, ‘Of Other Spaces’, trans. J. Miskowiec, Diacritics, 16 (Spring
34 Ibid., 25.
35 See P. Beaver, The Crystal Palace: A Portrait of VictorianEnterprise
of the information society in government uses case studies of the
Post Office and MI5 and deals with the mechanics of information
management. 43 Even if we look outside central government it is
001-021 PoliceControl Introduction.indd 10
difficult to find many detailed histories of administrative practices:
as Campbell-Kelly noted, techniques of data processing in large
Victorianenterprises tend ‘to go unrecorded’.44
The history of information within the firm has been pioneered
by historians of American corporate practice
imagination, no less significant to that era than the exoticism of the
Orient or the darkness at the heart of Africa. This book positions the
Arctic alongside more thoroughly investigated theatres of Victorianenterprise. It seeks to extend understanding of polar and cultural
history through the examinination of a wide variety of nineteenth
century Arctic representations, using theoretical approaches devised by
Patrick Beaver, The Crystal Palace: A Portrait of
VictorianEnterprise (Chichester, Phillimore, 1986), p. 84.
Henry Incledon Pilcher, Diary 1866, Australian National Maritime
Museum, Sydney, 4 August.
George F. Chadwick, The Works of Sir Joseph Paxton,
1803–65 (London, Architectural Press, 1961), p. 148.
Ibid., p. 148; the north transept was destroyed by fire on 30 December 1866
considered in very much the African tradition
– Parley actually denied that Russian Arctic peoples had a
Another consequence of its emptiness was the lack of the ‘little
wars’ which were so common a feature of Victorianenterprise in
Africa, India and China. These wars provided opportunities for armed
exploit, personal heroics, denunciations of ‘perfidious