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Melissa Edmundson

Throughout the nineteenth century, the term ‘uncomfortable houses’ was used to describe properties where restless spirits made life unpleasant for any living persons who tried to claim these supernatural residences as their own. This article uses the idea of ‘uncomfortable houses’ to examine how this ghostly discomfort related to larger cultural issues of economics and class in Victorian Britain. Authors such as Charlotte Riddell and Margaret Oliphant used the haunted house story as a means of social critique which commented on the financial problems facing many lower- and middle-class Victorians. Their stories focus on the moral development of the protagonists and reconciliation through the figure of the ghost, ultimately giving readers the happy endings that many male-authored ghost stories lack. Riddell‘s ‘The Old House in Vauxhall Walk’ and ‘Walnut-Tree House’ and Oliphant‘s ‘The Open Door’ serve as important examples of this ‘suburban Gothic’ literature.

Gothic Studies
Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain
Author: Diana Donald

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

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Naomi Paxton

Buy: Shopping and the Culture of Consumption in Victorian Women’s Writing (Athens, OH:  Ohio University Press, 2008), p. 164. 20 Kitty Marion, unpublished autobiography, New York Public Library, p. 6. 21 Votes for Women Supplement, 23 April 1908, p. 1. 22 Votes for Women, 30 July 1908, p. 338. 23 Votes for Women, 3 December 1908, p. 162. 24 Votes for Women, 4 February 1909, p. 312. 25 AFL, Half Yearly Report, 1911. 26 Votes for Women, 15 April 1910, p. 455. 27 Kitty Marion, unpublished autobiography, New York Public Library, p. 6. 28 M. Vicinus

in Stage Rights!
Humour and narrative control on stage with Ayşe Şahin
Annedith Schneider

, rather than explicitly, gendered concern. Yet the form of her play makes use of planned chaos and non-linearity that others have identified as typical of feminine humour. Regenia Gagnier, in her analysis of Victorian women’s writing, concludes that ‘women’s humour tends towards anarchy rather than the status quo, to prolonged disruption rather than, in Freudian theory, momentary release’ (1988: 145). With a few famous exceptions, comedy has traditionally been dominated by men (Case and Lippard 2009), and this is even more true for physical comedy. One is hard pressed

in Turkish immigration, art and narratives of home in France
A gendered divide in Victorian society
Diana Donald

examples of these tendencies in Victorian women’s writing; especially of a genre of ‘tales’ about pet birds and other tamed creatures, told by their benefactresses.59 A wealthy widow living ‘sequestered’ in a mansion at Stanmore with a large estate, Brightwen impressed her own personality and ambience on every page of her natural history books.60 Her sketches of the house and gardens often appear among the illustrations, in proprietorial association with the menagerie she kept there. Charitable but condescending patronage of the local villagers and •  158  • The ‘two

in Women against cruelty (revised edition)
A gendered divide in Victorian society
Diana Donald

examples of these tendencies in Victorian women’s writing; especially of a genre of ‘tales’ about pet birds and other tamed creatures, told by their benefactresses.59 A  wealthy widow living ‘sequestered’ in a mansion at Stanmore with a large estate, Brightwen impressed her own personality and ambience on every page of her natural history books.60 Her sketches of the house and gardens often appear among the illustrations, in proprietorial association with the menagerie she kept there. Charitable but condescending patronage of the local villagers and poor Londoners

in Women against cruelty
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Revealing the unseen Mary Wollstonecraft
Susan Civale

the Eighteenth and Beginning of the Nineteenth Century, 3 vols (London: Macmillan, 1882), II, p. 249. 252 Ibid., p. 251. 253 Ibid., p. 251; p. 252. 254 Ibid., pp. 252–3. 255 Ibid., pp. 1–2. 256 Elizabeth Robins Pennell, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (London: W. H. Allen, 1885), p. 1. 257 Ibid., p. 90. 258 Ibid., p. 90. 259 Alison Chapman, ‘Achieving fame and canonicity’, in The Cambridge Companion to Victorian Women’s Writing, ed. Linda H. Peterson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), p. 82. Julia Ward Howe wrote on Margaret Fuller, Mathilde Blind on

in Romantic women’s life writing
Mary Hays and the struggle for self-representation
Susan Civale

passionately in her aunt’s novel nearly three-quarters of a century earlier. Though more research is needed to understand the writing and reception of Matilda Mary, her work provides an example of Mary Hays’s influence on Victorian women’s writing. Conclusion The reform agitation that peaked in the early 1790s was, by the end of that decade, repressed and dispersed, with Britain emerging from William Pitt’s Tory administration as a far more conservative country. The defeat of this reform movement, according to Kenneth R. Johnston, ‘also registered in the ruined lives and

in Romantic women’s life writing