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Landscape, display and identity

This book explores the influence of imperialism in the landscapes of modern European cities including London, Paris, Rome, Vienna, Marseilles, Glasgow and Seville. The first part considers some ways in which the design of urban landscapes articulated competing visions of the imperial city, including large-scale planning and architectural schemes, urban design and public monuments. The final shape of the Queen Victoria Memorial in London suggests an oddly tenuous relationship between the creation of imperial space and the representation of the empire itself. The notions of empire and romanità are expressed through the location, styling and form of the Vittoriano in Rome. The second part of the book considers the role of various forms of visual display, including spectacular pageants, imperial exhibitions and suburban gardens, in the cultural life of metropolitan imperialism. The material transformation of Paris with rhetorical devices reveals a deep-seated ambiguity about just how 'imperial' Paris wanted to appear. Sydenham Crystal Palace housed the Ethnological and Natural History Department, and its displays brought together animals, plants and human figures from various areas of the globe. The largest part of imperial Vienna's tourist traffic came from within the Austrian lands of the empire. The last part of the book is primarily concerned with the associations between imperial identities and the history of urban space in a variety of European cities. The book considers the changing cultural and political identities in the imperial city, looking particularly at nationalism, masculinity and anti-imperialism.

Shaping and remembering an imperial city, 1870–1911
David Atkinson
Denis Cosgrove
, and
Anna Notaro

over the material fragments of imperial Rome gathered in the Capitoline museums and looks across the piazza at the great equestrian statue of the emperor and philosopher Marcus Aurelius. In its effort to rehearse the romanità of the Liberal state, the Vittorio Emanuele II monument replicates this iconography precisely. At the base of the Vittoriano (as the monument became known), flanking the broad central stairway demanded by the second competition, two fountains represent the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian

in Imperial cities
A node in the web of transatlantic ‘traffic’ in the second half of the nineteenth century
Marina Camboni

. 16 E. Nencioni, Pagine scelte di Enrico Nencioni, Bruno Cicognani (ed.) (Milano: Laboratori Maestretti Editore, 1940), p. 5. See also I. Nardi, Un critico vittoriano: Enrico Nencioni (Napoli: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 1985). 17 T. Signorini

in Republics and empires
Laura Moure Cecchini

its scale) not to be realised, Brasini's overambitious proposal pleased Mussolini and Sarfatti, who at the time counselled the Duce on artistic matters and had lost her seventeen-year-old son during the war. 35 Thanks to this encounter Brasini received important commissions in the regime's early years, such as the artistic directorship of the Vittoriano, the unfinished monument to Victor Emanuel II in Piazza Venezia, and the Italian pavilion at the 1925 Paris Exhibition – a boxy structure with Corinthian columns and

in Baroquemania
Christopher Duggan

Vittoriano’) began. In January 1884 a national ‘pilgrimage’ to the Pantheon was organised to mark the sixth anniversary of the king’s death. Victor Emmanuel’s coffin was exhumed and placed on a huge catafalque, and tens of thousands of visitors came to the capital to pay their respects – albeit in controlled batches, much to the annoyance of some on the left who would have preferred the government to have encouraged a more spontaneous outpouring of popular emotion.12 But the efforts of the state to elevate the profile of the Italian monarchy were overshadowed in the main

in The cult of the Duce
Eugene Pooley

Mussolini between Piazza Colonna and Piazza di Montecitorio, with a view to setting this new forum on a wide boulevard, the Via Imperiale, that would, through extensive demolition, link it to the Roman and Imperial forums, via the Vittoriano, at its southern point, and to Piazza Augusto Imperatore in the north. It aimed to build a narrative from antiquity, through the Risorgimento, to the contemporary era. While the GUR and Burbera plans symbolically placed Mussolini at the centre of modern and classical urban forms, Brasini’s project revealed a greater attempt to

in The cult of the Duce
Andrea Mariuzzo

councils by Soviet flags on major city monuments, such as St Peter’s Basilica and the Vittoriano monument in the capital. The countercharge: ‘slaves to the foreigner’ in Communist language The leadership of the PCI, and consequently the PSI, mainly responded to accusations about their allegiance by counterattacking, using interpretative frameworks that to a great extent mirrored those of their opponents. This approach was encapsulated in an article by Ruggero Grieco for the thirtieth anniversary of the PCI’s foundation. After declaring that the Communists were ‘loyal to

in Communism and anti-Communism in early Cold War Italy