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Paschasius Radbertus' funeral oration for Wala of Corbie
Authors: Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

This book presents a new and accessible translation of a well-known yet enigmatic text: the ‘Epitaph for Arsenius’ by the monk and scholar Paschasius Radbertus (Radbert) of Corbie. This monastic dialogue, with the author in the role of narrator, plunges the reader directly into the turmoil of ninth-century religion and politics. ‘Arsenius’ was the nickname of Wala, a member of the Carolingian family who in the 830s became involved in the rebellions against Louis the Pious. Exiled from the court, Wala/Arsenius died Italy in 836. Casting both Wala and himself in the role of the prophet Jeremiah, Radbert chose the medium of the epitaph (funeral oration) to deliver a polemical attack, not just on Wala’s enemies, but also on his own.

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Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

The Epitaph of Arsenius Confronting crisis The ‘epitaph’ or funeral oration for Abbot Wala of Corbie (d. 836), a cousin of Charlemagne who was also known as Arsenius, is a confrontation with political crisis at various levels, and at different moments in time. Its focus is on Wala’s different roles during the reigns of Charlemagne (768–814) and his successor, Louis the Pious (814–40). As the only remaining son when his father died, Louis, who had hitherto been king of Aquitaine, had already been made co-emperor by Charlemagne in 813. At this time Wala was

in Confronting crisis in the Carolingian empire
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Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

our destination. For if we had been discovered, an even narrower confinement would have awaited us than the one which was previously inflicted [on Wala]. For with the emperor at the time was Justina, who once more wielded the sceptre of the entire realm ( monarchia ), who stirred up the waves and the seas, whipped up the winds, and turned the hearts of men to whatever she desired. And because they had driven that one supremely depraved man of whom we have spoken [Bernard] from her side, 146 others of the most criminal sort continued to render service. And though

in Confronting crisis in the Carolingian empire
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Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake

tricks, and it 390 began to set in motion a plot to bring about the death of the woman, since it saw that one was coming whom it judged could not be corrupted by bribes. [p. 56] This was the weapon that it typically used to weaken everyone’s resolve and lure them towards its embrace of carnal desires; for almost everyone ‘pursues rewards and loves bribes’. 391 Yet when it could prompt no failure of duty in the other, it turned to trickery through the working of iniquity. When he [Wala] had ordered him to return at least some part of the lands that he had unjustly

in Confronting crisis in the Carolingian empire
Lindy Brady

is a swearte Wealas (l. 4) and wonfeax Wale (l. 8) in Riddle 12, a wonfah Wale (l. 6) in Riddle 52, and the link of sweartum hyrde (l. 11) to mearcpaþas Walas (l. 12) in Riddle 72. Riddles 52 and 72 are understood to depict cattle herded by the ‘dark Welsh’, while Riddle 12 has drawn critical attention because its wonfeax wale (l. 8a, darkhaired, female Welsh slave) also raises questions of gender.13 (Although Riddle 12 does connect the Welsh to cattle, it is less relevant to this chapter because it focuses on uses for leather after the ox is dead.) While studies

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
Inalienability of church property and the sovereignty of a ruler in the ninth century
Stefan Esders and Steffen Patzold

of church property and considerations of the emperor’s special role in exchanges transacted with churches. Via the Collectio of Ansegis these same provisions quickly found a wide distribution. Louis himself modified the practices of his Government in response, with a new kind of royal document that confirmed exchanges between churches and third parties. And we see all of this embedded in a larger discussion in the 820s about the legal status of church property. Against this background one should now perhaps revisit the infamous sche­ dula of Abbot Wala of Corbie

in Religious Franks
Matthew Kempshall

Poetry Revisited’, Revue Bénédictine, 103 (1993), pp. 482–531. 40  Lucan, Pharsalia, I.1, p. 3. For the popularity of this line, see, for example, Paschasius Radbertus, Epitaphium Arsenii, trans. A. Cabaniss, Charlemagne’s Cousins: Contemporary Lives of Adalard and Wala (Syracuse, 1967), II.7, p. 158; Widukind, Res Gestae Saxonicae, ed. and trans. E. Rotter and B. Schneidmüller (rev. edn, Stuttgart, 1992), III.18, p. 176; Conrad of Hirsau, Dialogue on the Authors, p. 111; Cosmas of Prague, Chronicle of the Czechs, trans. L. Wolverton (Washington, DC, 2009), II.45, p

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
Roel Meijer

adjacent counter-concepts pose a threat to official Wahhabism and its support of such potentially ambiguous or threatening concepts as al-wala’ wa-l-bara’ (loyalty to Muslims and disavowal of non-Muslims) jihad and takfir (excommunication) – even in their moderate decontested forms – and the total rejection of politics as a separate autonomous field to solve basic conflicts of interest, Western definitions also condemn all those national liberation struggles Saudi Arabia supports in Palestine, Chechnya and Afghanistan. 19 Finally, the difference with Western

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Philippe Depreux

in a collective act of contrition.12 The account in the Royal Frankish Annals is circumstantial: After receiving the advice of his bishops and nobles, the lord emperor was reconciled with those brothers whom he had ordered, against their will, to be tonsured. And because of this deed and others – that is, what was done against Bernard, the son of his brother Pepin, and what was done against Abbot Adalhard and his brother Wala – he made a public confession and performed penance [publicam confessionem fecit et paenitentiam egit]. He carried this out in the presence

in Religious Franks
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Rosamond McKitterick

-representation in the post-Roman West. Mayke has been energetic in her championing of early medieval Christians who thought about their own positions in society vis-à-vis God, the past, and their present rulers. She has been unafraid in her confrontation of the intellectual, moral and emotional challenges faced by men and women in the early Middle ages, from the parents offering their children as oblates to monasteries, to the challenges faced by early medieval exegetes in relating the text of the Bible to contemporary politics and the texts relating to Wala of Corbie’s tussles

in Religious Franks