a promising beginning
The invention of the ‘WarofIndependence’
The classification of the conflict unleashed in the Iberian peninsula
between 1808 and 1814 as a ‘warofindependence’, the term eventually bestowed upon it as a result of the nationalist narrative of these
events, is highly questionable. If ‘warofindependence’ is understood
to mean an attempt at secession by the inhabitants of a territory integrated against their will into an empire, it should be borne in mind that
Napoleon had no intention of turning the Spanish
The intervention of Britain, Russia and France
in the Greek WarofIndependence is regarded as the first armed intervention on
humanitarian grounds in world history (as depicted by publicists from Wheaton
onwards) and it took place prior to the appearance of the new concept of
humanitarian intervention. As such it was pace-setting.
From the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) until the
outbreak of the Greek WarofIndependence
resources did take place. In relation to agricultural development, the co-operative movement offered a ready-made instrument through which the rural policies might be carried out. From the vantage point of the IAOS, the shift in the political landscape raised the possibility of advancing attempts to construct a Co-operative Commonwealth. However, any prospects of a peaceful transition into the next phase of a more co-operative economy soon dissipated. The Irish WarofIndependence saw the country collapse into a violent guerrilla conflict fought between the Irish
An Excerpt from Bill V. Mullen’s New Biography, James
Baldwin: Living in Fire, and an Interview with the
Bill V. Mullen
This excerpt from James Baldwin: Living in Fire details a key
juncture in Baldwin’s life, 1957–59, when he was transformed by a
visit to the South to write about the civil rights movement while grappling with
the meaning of the Algerian Revolution. The excerpt shows Baldwin understanding
black and Arab liberation struggles as simultaneous and parallel moments in the
rise of Third World, anti-colonial and anti-racist U.S. politics. It also shows
Baldwin’s emotional and psychological vulnerability to repressive state
violence experienced by black and Arab citizens in the U.S., France, and
This book is a history of the Irish civil service and its response to revolutionary changes in the State. It examines the response of the civil service to the threat of partition, World War, the emergence of the revolutionary forces of Dáil Éireann and the IRA through to the Civil War and the Irish Free State. Questioning the orthodox interpretation of evolution rather than revolution in the administration of the State, the book throws light on civil-service organisation in British-ruled Ireland, the process whereby Northern Ireland came into existence, the Dáil Éireann administration in the War of Independence, and civil-service attitudes to the new Irish Free State.
The 1948 war that led to the creation of the State of Israel also resulted in the destruction of Palestinian society, when some 80 per cent of the Palestinians who lived in the major part of Palestine upon which Israel was established became refugees. Israelis call the 1948 war their ‘War of Independence’ and the Palestinians their ‘Nakba’, or catastrophe. After many years of Nakba denial, land appropriation, political discrimination against the Palestinians within Israel and the denial of rights to Palestinian refugees, in recent years the Nakba is beginning to penetrate Israeli public discourse. This book explores the construction of collective memory in Israeli society, where the memory of the trauma of the Holocaust and of Israel's war dead competes with the memory claims of the dispossessed Palestinians. Taking an auto-ethnographic approach, it makes a contribution to social memory studies through a critical evaluation of the co-memoration of the Palestinian Nakba by Israeli Jews. Against a background of the Israeli resistance movement, the book's central argument is that co-memorating the Nakba by Israeli Jews is motivated by an unresolved melancholia about the disappearance of Palestine and the dispossession of the Palestinians, a melancholia which shifts mourning from the lost object to the grieving subject. The book theorises Nakba co-memory as a politics of resistance, counterpoising co-memorative practices by internally displaced Israeli Palestinians with Israeli Jewish discourses of the Palestinian right of return, and questions whether return narratives by Israeli Jews are ultimately about Israeli Jewish self-healing.
This book illuminates the history of Irish journalism and enhances the idea of journalism as a scholarly exercise rooted in the historical evolution of the profession. The most curious episodes in the history of Irish journalism was the world-wide fame attained by the Skibbereen Eagle, a small provincial newspaper which declared that it was keeping an eye on the Tsar of Russia. William Howard Russell is probably the best known of the Irish-born correspondents who captured dramatic events from far-flung locations for newspaper readers. The book then examines the careers of four prominent Irish or Irish-American journalists, editors and newspaper proprietors based in Chicago, who struggled to tread the fine line between assimilation and identity. The four Chicago journalists previously mentioned are listed here: Melville E. Stone, John F. Finerty, Margaret Sullivan and Finley Peter Dunne. The book further focuses on Sinn Fein and its influence in altering the vision for Ireland's future. It considers the role of Irish newspapers in the peace process which ended the Irish War of Independence and led to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921. The book concentrates on the three most popular Irish daily newspapers at the time, the Freeman's Journal, Irish Independent and The Irish Times. Finally, the book explores the work of Irish journalists abroad and shows how the great political debates about Ireland's place in the United Kingdom served as a backdrop to newspaper publication in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
French rule in Algeria ended in 1962 following almost eight years of intensely violent conflict, producing one of the largest migratory waves of the post-1945 era. Almost a million French settlers - pieds-noirs - and tens of thousands of harkis - native auxiliaries who had fought with the French army - felt compelled to leave their homeland and cross the Mediterranean to France. Tracing the history of these two communities, From Empire to Exile explores the legacies of the Algerian War of Independence in France. It uses the long-standing grassroots collective mobilisation and memory activism undertaken by both groups to challenge the idea that this was a ‘forgotten’ war that only returned to public attention in the 1990s. Revealing the rich and dynamic interactions produced as pieds-noirs,harkis and other groups engaged with each other and with state-sanctioned narratives, this study demonstrates the fundamental ways in which postcolonial minorities have shaped the landscapes of French politics, society and culture since 1962. It also helps place the current ‘memory wars’ deemed to be sweeping France in their wider historical context, proving that the current competition for control over the representation of the past in the public sphere is not a recent development, but the culmination of long-running processes. By reconceptualising the ways in which the Algerian War has been debated, evaluated and commemorated in the five decades since it ended, this book makes an original contribution to important discussions surrounding the contentious issues of memory, migration and empire in contemporary France.
conflicts in Ireland from 1916 to 1923: the Easter Rising (April
1916), Irish WarofIndependence (January 1919–July 1921) and
Irish Civil War (June 1922–May 1923). As part of their
wartime duties within the RAMC, a contingent of Irish doctors tended
to those wounded in the Easter Rising, including members of the
British Army and separatist Irish nationalists. Ex
fighters. Undoubtedly Algerian
women have been pushed into a secondary role in the war story, but
their presence, however marginal, has none the less been a constituent part of the epic narrative of resistance. It is the ultimate symbol,
after all, of a struggle ‘by the people, for the people’.
Representations of women in the WarofIndependence, both
as victims and fighters, began to be spun into a national narrative before the conflict was finished and independence won.
Gendered stereotypes sought to rally Algerians to the nationalist
cause to defend ‘their women’ by