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Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé
Joanna Kuper

Introduction 1 On 15 December 2013, only two and a half years after the Republic of South Sudan had become an independent state, the long-simmering tensions between President Salva Kiir and his former vice-president, Riek Machar, erupted into armed clashes in the capital, Juba. War soon broke out. This article seeks to document and analyse violence affecting the provision of healthcare by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and its intended

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Ian Scott
Henry Thompson

1 War Introduction This I feel. A curse. Mother said it more than once, ‘You could be killed over there, Oliver,’ as if I were incompetent, not man enough to take care of myself; I hated her motherlove arrogance. Did I listen? Did it make sense? Mothers are cowards. Curses passed down the vaginal passageways deep to man. True as true can be. I told her that I didn’t really want to go back to Yale, I was an adventurer, just like her and went to Vietnam instead. But I wonder what she’ll say when she finds out about this. My limbs stiffening, waiting in this groin

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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‘The duel between Nietzsche and civilisation’
Patrick Bixby

parliamentarian and economics professor had turned gunrunner and war correspondent, Kettle would have cause to retract his claim (indeed, as we shall see, he also played a significant role in resuming the duel), but in his introductory commentary he could write with confidence that ‘the crowd, the common herd, the multitude’, which the philosopher famously railed against, ‘has dismissed Nietzsche’s ideas in order

in Nietzsche and Irish modernism
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Military operations
Michael Clarke

T HE Cold War ended dramatically on 26 December 1991 when the collapsed Soviet Union dissolved itself. Ironically, in late 1991 British forces were just returning from the war to help liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation, where they had fought with their airpower and heavy metal very much in Cold War style. It was as if anti-Soviet battle routines had been transposed out of NATO and tested by the allies in the open territory around Basra. Britain created a full division for the operation and

in The challenge of defending Britain
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Jane Brooks

provided I could go back to my matron, and to the hospital.’ ‘No. You cannot.’ They gave me other alternatives. So I told them, ‘if I’m not good enough to go to my matron, I don’t want it anyway’. 1 As this quote demonstrates, being turned away from the one place that offered some normality and security after all the horrors of persecution and escape was challenging for refugee nurses. This chapter thus explores the considerable hardships that the war years imposed on these

in Jewish refugees and the British nursing profession
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Frank Prochaska

4 The war and charity Frank Prochaska ‘The Luftwaffe was a powerful missionary for the welfare state’, wrote A. J. P. Taylor over forty years ago.1 Like many historians since, Taylor believed that the Blitz, and mass evacuation, triggered a social revolution in Britain, in which planning with a capital P came into full, luxuriant bloom. The impact of the Second World War on the flowering of state social policy has attracted such attention that its impact on charities and the voluntary work of the churches has been obscured. Historians of the welfare state have

in Beveridge and voluntary action in Britain and the wider British world
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Although American-centred studies continue to form the largest single element in Vietnam historiography, a growing number of scholars now argue that the US military intervention in the 1960s, though massive in its scale and implications, did not in itself make Vietnam an American war. The first scholarly work to stress fully the importance of the conflict as an international phenomenon was R. B. Smith's multi-volume International History of the Vietnam War. However, a number of Western historians, whilst acknowledging this difficulty and the associated methodological problems, still sought to use what evidence there was to provide a Vietnamese view of the conflict. In R. B. Smith's International History of the Vietnam War, for example, a detailed exposition of communist policy is the axis around which his international analysis revolves. Memoirs in particular have introduced the 'human factor' into Vietnam historiography, especially in regard to communist decision making, although like all post-facto recollections, they operate best as an accompaniment to, rather than substitute for, more solid, contemporary, primary source evidence. In the latter connection, recent research based on newly available Chinese communist sources, and on documents housed in the hitherto closed archives of the former Soviet Union, have contributed to a greater understanding of Sino-Soviet policy and decision-making on Vietnam, and to a more acute appreciation of the troubled relationship between the Vietnamese communists and their major allies.