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Louis Rawlings

3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 128 Chapter 7 Siege warfare The construction of defences in stone implies the perception of significant threat (real or imagined) and a social organisation capable of collective construction. The emergence of strong fortifications in Greece dates to the Mycenaean period, when kings ruled over centralised bureaucracies that oversaw the economic, military and religious activities of their communities. Mycenaean towns and palaces, such as Tiryns, Orchomenus and Gla, occupied naturally strong defensive positions that

in The ancient Greeks at war
Abstract only
Louis Rawlings

3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 104 Chapter 6 Naval warfare I stayed but one month with my wife and children until my inner spirit (thymos) moved me to mount an expedition to Egypt with well-appointed ships and my god-like companions. I acquired nine ships and swiftly the people (laos) came together; then for six days I feasted my ready companions (hetairoi), for I gave them many victims to sacrifice to the gods and for themselves to consume. On the seventh, we boarded and sailed on a fair north wind from broad Crete. Easily we sat, as if

in The ancient Greeks at war
Abstract only
Philip M. Taylor

Chapter 10 Renaissance Warfare The advent of the printing press coincided with other significant developments in human activity, especially in the conduct of warfare. We have already noted the arrival of gunpowder by the late Middle Ages, although its initial impact had been more psychological than military. By the late fifteenth century, its military use was being perfected in the form of cannon and hand-held weapons. This in turn, as we have seen, tended to depersonalize combat. It increased the physical distance between opposing forces and thus reduced the

in Munitions of the Mind
Abstract only
Carina Gunnarson

5 Cultural warfare While a great deal has been written on the Mafia in Sicily, there is less literature on the anti-Mafia movement. Santino’s Storia del movimento antimafia is an indispensable source for readers interested in the history of that movement. ­Santino’s contribution is a detailed description of more than 100 years of anti-Mafia efforts, starting with the Sicilian Fasci (a ­workers’ movement) in the 1890s, continuing with the peasant protests during the post-war period, and concluding with the anti-Mafia movement during the last 40 years. Jamieson

in Cultural warfare and trust

The authors investigate the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of wider-scale warfare. Unlike the great wars found in modern history, the dominant form of warfare in recent years has become internal. The main actors are non-state groups seeking to replace an existing political order through violent means. Terrorism, especially indiscriminate attacks on unarmed civilians, has been an important component of these groups’ tactical repertoires. The purpose of this study is to explore variations in the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of war. The authors draw on the largely separate literatures on terrorism and warfare as well as complementary sources of data on terrorist events, insurgent groups, and various forms of armed conflict. The product of this analysis is a mapping of the frequencies of terrorist attacks over time and the identification of these attacks as occurring during the beginning, middle, or ending stages of wider-scale warfare. This is followed by in-depth discussions of the insurgent groups whose use of terrorism matches each of these patterns as well as the contexts within which these groups operate. Readers of this book will include students, scholars, policy-makers, members of the military, and the general public.

Abstract only
Louis Rawlings

3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 19 Chapter 2 Early Greek warfare Greeks in later periods looked back into the past and saw an age of heroes. As early as the beginning of the seventh century BC, the farmer-poet Hesiod described: A god-like race of hero-men who are called demi-gods, the race before our own, throughout the boundless earth. Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part of them, some in the land of Cadmus at seven-gated Thebes when they fought for the flocks of Oedipus, and some, when it had brought them in ships over the great sea gulf

in The ancient Greeks at war
Nursing the victims of gas poisoning in the First World War
Christine E. Hallett

4 ‘This fiendish mode of warfare’: Nursing the victims of gas poisoning in the First World War Christine E. Hallett On 22 April 1915, German troops stationed behind defensive trenches just East of Ypres in Belgium opened 6,000 canisters of chlorine gas, allowing their contents to drift across no man’s land to the allied trenches opposite.1 Their action marked the start of an escalating and destructive form of chemical warfare, which came to be seen as a defining characteristic of the First World War. Both sides experimented with increasingly destructive

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Textual representations
Editor: Angela K. Smith

The changes in warfare during the twentieth century could be addressed from a variety of perspectives, political, cultural, and national. This book addresses the issue of how gender is constructed by exploring a range of historical events. It also asserts that a focus on gender, rather than producing a depoliticised reading of our culture, offers an informed debate on a range of political issues. The book explores the impact of warfare on women whose civilian or quasi-military roles resulted in their exile or self-exile to the role of 'other'. The book first draws upon a number of genres to use Richard Aldington and H. D. (the poet Hilda Doolittle), to understand the social and cultural implications of warfare for both parties in a relationship. Then, it examines the intricate gender assumptions that surround the condition of 'shell shock' through a detailed exploration of the life and work of Ver a Brittain. Continuing this theme, considering the nature of warfare, the gendered experience of warfare, through the lens of the home front, the book discusses the gendered attitudes to the First World War located within Aldous Huxley's novella 'Farcical History of Richard Greenow'. Wars represented in Western cinema are almost universally gendered as male, which corresponds to the battlefield history of twentieth-century warfare. As this situation changes, and more women join the armed services, especially in the United States, a more inclusive cinematic coding evolves through struggle. The book considers three decades of film, from the Vietnam War to the present.

Michael Loadenthal

4 Insurrection as warfare, terrorism, and revolutionary design I believe that the action of these specific incendiary groups contributed to the unstoppable course of anarchist insurrection. Incendiary attacks are an inseparable part of the struggle because they are easy to carry out by new comrades, keep the fire of belligerent hostilities burning and contribute to the spreading of anarchist violence. They add their own pebbles to the continuation of the anarchist urban guerrilla and cause trouble to the smooth running of the system. Of course arsons must occur

in The politics of attack
Fighting the Mafia in Palermo

This book concentrates on a central issue in research on democratic processes: the development of generalised trust. The existence of generalised trust and confidence in a society is decisive for economic development and an effective democracy. Is it possible to fight persistent values of distrust and non-cooperation? Is it possible to support the development of generalised trust through public action and education? The book addresses these questions by examining political efforts to combat Palermo's Mafia-controlled heritage and to turn a tradition of non-cooperation and distrust into cooperation and trust. In particular, it focuses on the school program launched by Leoluca Orlando, Mayor of Palermo, during the mid-1990s, which was designed to break the Mafia's territorial and mental control, to restore citizens' rights and to promote a civic consciousness based on the rule of law. Combining theories on social capital and civic education, the book presents and analyses quantitative and qualitative research carried out in seven public schools in Palermo, some situated in extremely difficult areas dominated by drugs, violence and organised crime.