Alternatives to surgical gloves for infection control, 1880–1945
Thomas Schlich

brittle and was easily removed through rubbing. 29 Carl Ludwig Schleich in 1900 proposed using a coating of insoluble wax paste. The so-called Schleich paste was a preparation of wax, which was brought into an emulsion with water. The paste was to be applied in a thin layer and the water would evaporate, leaving a thin layer of pure beeswax on the surgeon’s hands, which, as Schleich wrote, was like a ‘soft skin of collodium, but more elastic and not cracking’. If rubbed it looked shiny, smooth and polished and behaved towards watery solutions like a glass surface

in Germs and governance
The Early Promise and Disappointing Career of Time-Lapse Photography
David Lavery

Time-lapse photography—the extremely accelerated recording and projection of an event taking place over an extended duration of time—is almost as old as the movies themselves. (The first known use of time-lapse dates from 1898.) In the early decades of the twentieth century, cineastes, not to mention scientists, artists, and poets, waxed eloquently on the promise of time-lapse photography as a means for revealing “things we cannot see,” and expanding human perception. This essay examines time-lapses tremendous initial imaginative appeal for such figures as Ernst Mach, Germaine Dulac, Jean Epstein, Rudolf Arnheim, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and Collette, and speculates about the possible reasons for its diminution over the course of the century.

Film Studies
From devotion to destruction
Paul Fouracre

an increasing number of people, who now came from a wider social range, could afford the wax and oil needed to keep lights burning in churches. 1 In consequence there were now more lights than ever. These included, of course, the eternal lights that burned on the altar and before shrines, but there was more generally a significant increase in the numbers of candles used in religious services, especially during festivals. The celebration of the purification of the Virgin Mary which takes place on the second day of February became known as Candlemas. This was when

in Eternal light and earthly concerns
Belief and the shaping of medieval society
Author: Paul Fouracre

In early Christianity it was established that every church should have a light burning on the altar at all times. This unique study is about the material and social consequences of maintaining eternal lights. Never before has the subject been treated as important to the political economy, nor has it been explored over the whole medieval period. The cost of maintaining the lights meant that only the elite could afford to do so, and peasants were organised to provide funds for the lights. Later, as society became wealthier, a wider range of people became providers and organised themselves into guilds or confraternities in support of the church and with the particular aim of commemorating their members. Power over the lights, and over individual churches, shifted to these organisations, and, when belief in the efficacy of burning lights was challenged in the Reformation, it was such people who were capable of bringing the practice of burning eternal lights to a sudden and sometimes violent end. The study concludes that the practice of keeping a flame on the altar did indeed have important material and cultural consequences. Because it examines the relation between belief and materiality at every turn, the book also works as a guide to the way in which Western Europe developed, from the decline of the Roman Empire to the advent of the Protestant state.

Abstract only
Paul Fouracre

maintaining perpetual light before their tombs. There is a description of a richly illuminated shrine in the poems of Paulinus, bishop of Nola in Italy (d. 431). His poems were written at the end of the fourth and at the beginning of the fifth century in honour of Saint Felix of Nola, believed to have been a martyr who had died in about the year 250. 19 According to Paul, Felix’s shrine was ‘crowned with crowds of lanterns. The fragrant lamps burn with waxed wicks of paper, and are ablaze night and day so that the night shines with the brightness of day, and the day too

in Eternal light and earthly concerns
Abstract only
David Annwn Jones

other substances and daubed over with acrylic paint. Hands emerge bearing an ice cream cone from inside the fractured body and the figure’s werewolf head seems frozen in mid-transformation dissolving in gouts of wax. The sculpture’s skin is splitting as if multiple identities are waiting to burst from the interior. When Tim Noble and Sue Webster were asked to contribute work to

in Gothic effigy
Abstract only
Jared Pappas-Kelley

for forestalling a verdict1 and extending her moments against foreclosure and maintaining their permeability—or likewise as Sarah Winchester’s task of attempting to build a metaphorical house that never ceased, with her construction of the Winchester House,2 we might better perceive this conjunctive impulse that behaves in peculiar ways, finding it again in the large melting wax candle sculptures of Urs Fischer. Scheherazade tells a story; a king’s edict However, first, to understand a work of art and its capacity to recapture the moment that counts—making the

in Solvent form
Barbery, earwax and snip-snaps
Eleanor Decamp

greasie groome have wee here?’ (E1r). Additionally in Epicoene, the Boy’s description of the ‘street ... so narrow’ (1.1.161) in which Morose lives, corresponds architecturally to the anatomy of intricate aural passages. Cutbeard is employed as picker and emulsifier of the excessive lipid-like substances in Morose’s festering ears. To appease Morose, who does not appreciate the exposure, Truewit hopes that the barber will have to ‘Eat ear-wax’ (3.5.87) in order to stay alive after calamity has – in Truewit’s ­imagination – struck the barber shop: Cutbeard’s punishment

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
Sue Walsh

between humanity and animality. To help me to think through the question of the grounds of the comparison between fur and hair, I want to turn firstly to an advertisement for an anti-fur campaign launched by P e TA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) in 1999/2000. The advertisement in question features, in P e Ta’s own words, ‘a woman in pink panties whose bikini line is in dire need of waxing, with the caption, “Fur trim. Unattractive.” ’ 3 The outcry surrounding this particular P e TA campaign advertisement peaked in the publicity

in The last taboo
Lord David Owen

Blair, with Mandelson in the lead, went on pinning 270 Prospects, reflections and realities their hopes, lifestyle and policies around the EU, deaf to the anxieties of many of their constituents. Labour’s unease had always been there in the UK since the Common Market debate in 1962 but with a waxing and waning of enthusiasm for the idea of European unity. By January 2016, with the EU’s social market, which I had long championed, having disgracefully accepted austerity and massive unemployment in Greece, Spain and Portugal, I decided to take the last opportunity in

in Making social democrats